On the basis of summarizing and dividing the history of the development of Chinese civil servants' classification management, this paper summarizes the characteristics of the classification of the current civil servants in China, such as the wide classification and diversity of the subject, and the classification criteria is not meticulous. Through the research on the design and implementation of the classification method, this paper summarizes the design defects such as unscientific classification of job classification, irrational grade design and lack of differentiation, and the practical problems such as poor operability, lack of fact basis and no supporting system. And this paper proposes proposal to distinguish between government affairs and affairs civil servants, distinction between central and local civil servants, correspondence of duties and level, and improvement of supporting system.
The paper intends to introduce the theory of calling to human resource management in public sector. By applying the mechanisms and theories of how career calling can benefit a worker's health, well-being, and work motivation, the paper proposes that the construction of civil servants' value system could be promoted by exhibition of how public people are benefited by the public service work; the evaluation effectiveness of the ethics of civil servants in selection could be improved by focusing on the measurement of their calling; the sustainable work motivation of civil servants could be facilitated by convincing them about long-term benefits of calling for individuals' physical, mental health and well-being.
Taking X chamber of Commerce as an sample, the paper applied case study method to explore the influence on trade associations and chambers of Commerce after decoupling from administrative organs, and how such social organization reformed human resources system to motivate and retain employees. Case study results showed that chamber of commerce turnover rate increases dramatically after decoupling. The decoupling practices causes the staff to enhance the sense of crisis. On the other hand, the disadvantages of internal malpractice compensation system, performance management and promotion system also makes employees perceive unfairness and lack of sense of belonging. The sense of crisis also enhances the sensitivity of unfairness and no belonging, which leads to low working enthusiasm or even quitting the job. Based on the problem analysis, the study puts forward some suggestions on the reform of human resource management.
Based on expectancy theory, this paper studies the relationship between power need and organizational citizenship behavior of civil servants in the Chinese context. With a survey of 423 civil servants, the paper performs a regression analysis which reveals that the power need of civil servant will significantly affect the organizational citizenship behavior in a positive way. Therefore, higher power need leads to a better organizational citizenship behavior. The study further introduces the theory of organizational politics and impression management, suggesting that the procedural justice of the promotion negatively moderates the relationship between the power need and the organizational citizenship behavior. That is, when the civil servants' procedural justice of promotion is high, the relationship between power need and organizational citizenship behavior will be weaker.
In order to promote the single digital market, EU has announced the proposal for a directive concerning the supply of the digital content, which provides systematic rules as regards the conformity of the digital content and remedies for non-performance. The remedies include bringing the digital content into conformity, rights to reduction of the price, right to damages and right to termination. The consumer is entitled to the right to termination in case of failure to supply, lack of conformity with the contract and long term contracts. In addition, the proposal also regulates the legal consequence of termination. These rules take the distinctive features of the digital content into account and try to make the traditional rules of contract law adjustable to the digital content and digitalization, from which fruitful experience could be drawn.
The latest achievements of the integration in the field of European Private Law-Common European Sales Law (hereinafter referred to as "CESL") redefined the concept of "damage" and its constituent elements, rules, responsibility principle and exemptions, foreseeability standard for the scope of compensation, attribution on both sides and calculation methods of damages, etc. This latest action is the interaction and comparative summary of the latest contract law and doctrine in domestic law and EU law development. The expansion trend of compensation to the non-property damages and its limiting tools could especially provide a reference for application and interpretation of Chapter of Contract Law in Chinese Civil Code.
Liquidity providing and price discovery are two basic functions of financial market. Can social media gather information effectively and promote price discovery? Based on rational expectation equilibrium model, this paper investigates the effect of social media on promoting price discovery by considering social media spreading information about stock fundamental value, and explores the impact of information quality on market efficiency, market liquidity and capital cost. The study draws a conclusion that media information transmission can promote price discovery. It is documented that the correlation of media information and fundamental value is positively related to market efficiency and negatively related to capital cost. However, rumor propagation has an impeditive effect on price discovery. We show that traders' herd behavior decreases price informativeness, and the greater the variance of rumors, the lower of market efficiency and the higher of capital cost.
With limited agricultural resources in China, it is of great significance to improve the efficiency of vegetable production for the security of supply. This research takes open-ground eggplant production for an example to calculate and analyse the vegetable production efficiency of 25 provinces separately by Data Envelope Analysis (DEA), Supper Efficiency DEA and K-means. The conclusions are as follows:first of all, improper scale of production is the main factor that prevents development of vegetable production in most provinces; secondly, some provinces in northwestern China have the advantages over other areas in regard to production efficiency; thirdly, 25 provinces can be divided into 5 production areas considering the differences in input, output and efficiency and for different areas there should be different development strategies.
2016 marks the beginning of the "13th Five-Year Plan" of Civil Aviation Deepening Reforms. All the relevant parties pay more attention to the issueof what course the civil aviation reformswill follow. Based on surveys and interviews, combined with major policies of our country and the industry development trend, the study summarizes six key problems of the current reforms, and recommendssome countermeasures that include improving the market system, administrative system, legal system, industry service system, airspace management reform, and innovation governance system.
Returned scholars are typical carriers of knowledge transfer and innovation. Based on the samples of 64 Chinese scientists returning from MIT and Stanford University, this paper analyses the impacts of their research experience in the United States on scientific research outputs and international collaborations after returning. The results show that the number of publications while doing study in the United States is positively correlated with the number after their returning, which means the scholars can extend their scientific productivity. Meanwhile, for those general disciplines like Nano technology, the scholars are willing to keep international research collaborations with their US mentors. On the contrary, for those scholars who have high quality publications, their collaboration intention is not strong. This paper presents new evidence for international knowledge transfer and innovation upon the migration of returned scholars.
Toni Morrison in her latest novel Home presents the memory about America in 1950s, which can be regarded as the "counter-memory" in opposition to the "official memory" about this period. According to the official history, people then lived in their own homes, enjoying peace and comfort, but the "counter-memory" provided by Toni Morrison reveals that to African Americans, both the memory about "home" and their growth is traumatized. They were excluded from the "American Dream", living in the despair of homelessness, even unable to control their own body, which was much abused and trampled upon. However, this "counter-memory" about 1950s in America is not only about gloominess for African Americans, whose optimism and perseverance enable them to survive such hardship. To Morrison, it is very important to fight for the rights in the field of memory, which is related to whether African Americans can be remembered or forgotten in American history.
According to Conceptual Metaphor Theory, metaphor is a basic mechanism of human cognition. The cognition of abstract concept such as time relies on the mapping from the concrete concept such as space onto abstract concept such as time, i.e. adopting spatiotemporal metaphor. Being one of the universal spatiotemporal metaphors, "Time Passing is Motion", however, has diversified realization in different cultures due to the influence of language and culture:different language speakers show different preference to the sub-metaphors entailed in it or the positions of "past/future" on the linear temporal axes. By observing and comparing the gestures of native Chinese and English speakers, the present research aims at testing:the psychological reality of the metaphor "Time Passing is Motion"; and the relation between the linguistic and cognitive variables. The research results show that the similarities and differences between native Chinese and English speakers' gesture directions were consistent with those suggested by the two respective languages (including writing direction and metaphorical expressions). In addition, the change in the test language led to a change in the English subjects' gesture direction. Those results help to prove the psychological reality of the above mentioned metaphor and the influence of linguistic variable on cognitive variable.
After the Sixth Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee of the CPC, the study on the ideology of independence in China was gradually systemized and theorized, combining academic nature with political idology and science. Specifically, Chinese scholars made the study mainly from the origin, formation, development and scientific connotation of the ideology of independence, while foreign scholars carried out the study with key leaders in CPC as the object and Marxism with Chinese Characteristics as the theme. The further study on the idea of independnce should be taken in the context of the history of Marxism, the great renaissance of Chinese nation, the history of CPC and CPC's ideological theory. The CPC's ideology of independence should be studied with the independence of class and based on the studies by most scholars in present academic circle who interprete the ideology of independence through relations between countries and parties.
The practice development of higher education evaluation system in China has experienced different stages. Although started late, the system strives to achieve standardization, scientification and specification.The paper reviews the evolution process of the system in the past 30 years and compares its four aspects including evaluation subjects, evaluation methods, evaluation indexes and evaluation conclusions through longitudinal and horizontal contrasts, aiming to find out China's disadvantages to achieve progress with advanced experience of foreign countries.
With the popularization of higher education, cultivation of excellent innovative talents has become an important work of research-oriented universities. Normally, the way to select students is diversified and the teaching is personalized. Excellent teachers are encouraged to join in the tutor system and student competition mechanism is carried out with high level of internationalization. Reforming measures are put forward as to the problems and deficiencies in this regard, which include innovating new mechanism of students selection, optimizing system the academic education, improving the system of moral education and constructing an efficient management team.
Based on the long-time exploration on innovation and entrepreneurship education system in Beihang university, this paper has screened some indexes through the literature and interview, which can describe the achievements effectively. Then this paper has provided an evaluation index system by questionnaire investigation and data analysis. For this index system, this paper has established an evaluation mechanism based on fuzzy mathematics. At last, this paper has validated the practicability and rationality by case study.
With the interest-driven and patriotism-driven college students' mass incidents as the research focus, this paper probes into the psychological and behavioral patterns underlying college students' involvement in collective actions in mass incidents in China. The paper also investigates the college students and student management staff from Beijing, Chongqing and Guangzhou. The results suggest that the generative mechanisms of the two types of college students' mass incidents and the function pathways of their integrated models are slightly different. In interest-driven mass incidents, national identity, school identity, and information dissemination produce impacts on behavioral intention via group efficacy pathway. In patriotism-driven mass incidents, national identity, triggering event cognition and information dissemination produce impacts on behavioral intention via group-based anger pathway. Both triggering event cognition and information dissemination produce significant impacts on group-based anger in either type of incident. Through studying college students in the background of China, this paper has thereby expanded Social Identity Theory (SIT) and Dual-Pathway Model's application in mass incidents.
The current cause analysis of "middle level obstruction" is mainly concerned with the cognitive differences in understanding public policies. The accountability casesinvolving "administrative executionreasons" logically present a different phenomenon; that is,under the premise of the consistency in regarding the policy-making asrelatively "reasonable" the "middle level obstruction" still exists.In this paper, the results of themulti-case content analysis show that under the premise of keeping the rationality of administrative decision-making, the phenomenon of "middle level obstruction" caused by domestic administrative execution is obviously affected by lack of individual quality constitution and behavior selection, including irresponsibility, maladministration, deviated understanding of the urgency of public issues, deviated understanding of the official role conversion, and region, division or personal interests orientations. Further analysis shows that the administration elements, cognition factors and benefit factorsall contribute heavily tothe complexity and difficulty in solving the problem.