Base on the characteristic of laser propulsion, an investigation was performed to find out the mechanism of the interaction between laser and propellant gas. The breakdown process of propellant gas was studied, calculation method of breakdown threshold value was obtained, the breakdown threshold value of hydrogen and air were calculated; the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption process was studied, calculation method of inverse bremsstrahlung absorption coefficient was obtained, the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption coefficient of hydrogen and argon were calculated. The result can reasonable explain the "blanch" phenomena and plasma instability in laser propulsion experimentation that is mentioned in some paper.
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