The optimal emergency orbit maneuver method for an earth observation satellite was studied, which uses the finite thrust model. The mission requirement of the emergency orbit maneuver was investigated firstly. A twice orbital maneuver technique was adequately chosen to make the algorithm universal. The finite thrust dynamic equation in the three-dimensional space that considering the J2 perturbation was derived. The time variable-s span was given by solving the Lambert-s problem. The genetic algorithm was used as the optimization method to get a time optimal result. An emulation example was given to verify the method. The result shows the method has a high precise and can be get in a short time so it is available for the emergency orbit maneuver mission.
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