According to the request of automated aerial refueling, the formation and distribution of wake vortex behind a large aerial tanker was discussed. A modified horseshoe vortex model that includes the effect of vortex descent and diffusion over time was given. This model was linearized nearby the mass point of the receiver and an averaging technique was implemented to compute effective wind on the receiver. The effective wind components and gradients were introduced into the nonlinear aircraft equations through aerodynamic equivalent to determine the effect on the receiver’s dynamics. Computer simulation of receiver/wake vortex encounters in aerial refueling was built by Matlab/Simulink. The results show that the wake vortex model can exactly describe the interference between the receiver and the tanker. This behavior is well matched with the feeling of the receiver’s pilot. This model can also be used for the flight safety about large aircraft during taking off and interaction analysis in tight formation flight.