A methodology for multi-mission navigation constellation was presented to optimize the payload configuration via the ant colony algorithm (ACA), which is a heuristic technique based on artificial ant colony searching strategy. An optimization model of payload configuration for multi-mission navigation constellation was built. ��n��+1 coverage ratio was defined and put forward to evaluate constellation coverage performance. Ant colony algorithm which is a novel meta-heuristic inspired on the biological behavior of ants was applied to optimize the payload configuration, and then heuristic value and ant-cycle model were modified to suit the optimization. Then, an optimization framework of payload configuration was given based on ACA. Simulation results show that ACA is quick and effective and the solution of payload configuration can meet the requirements of multi-mission constellation.