北京航空航天大学学报(社会科学版) ›› 2015, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (1): 53-62.DOI: 10.13766/j.bhsk.1008-2204.2014.0584

• 本期特约专家稿件 • 上一篇    下一篇

论国际空难损害赔偿的国家责任

郝秀辉   

  1. 中国民航大学 航空法律与政策研究中心, 天津 300300
  • 收稿日期:2014-11-13 出版日期:2015-01-25 发布日期:2015-01-24
  • 作者简介:郝秀辉(1971-),女,辽宁葫芦岛人,教授,博士,研究方向为航空法.
  • 基金资助:

    国家社会科学基金后期资助项目(14FFX049);中央高校基本科研业务费专项项目(312 2013 P010)

State Responsibility for Damage Compensation in International Air Disasters

Hao Xiuhui   

  1. Research Center of Aviation Law and Policy, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300, China
  • Received:2014-11-13 Online:2015-01-25 Published:2015-01-24

摘要:

国际空难损害赔偿国家责任的存在具有正当性,禁止对民用航空器使用武力的国际法原则是基本要求,主权责任理论是国家责任承担的理论基础。马航MH17航班空难中,国际不法行为和损害后果在国家责任要件中是不容争议和辨驳的。国际空难可归因于国家的国际不法行为可包括一国武装力量的不当行为、一国国家航空器不当操作与他国民用航空器的相撞行为、一国不法分子对他国民用航空器的非法干扰行为、一国机关或个人的错误或失误行为、武装叛乱行为等,其中为武力袭击民航客机者提供武器装备的国家也具有一定条件下的可归责性。过错要件对于国际空难损害赔偿国家责任的方式和程度有重要影响。在不承认武装叛乱组织的国际法地位的前提下,乌克兰这个主权国家对马航MH17航班被导弹击落至少存在过失责任。国际空难损害赔偿国家责任虽有实现障碍,但依然有政治解决、国际诉讼和协商谈判的路径可寻。

关键词: 马航MH17航班, 国际空难, 损害赔偿, 国家责任, 主权责任

Abstract:

State responsibility for international air disasters has legitimacy of existence. Banning the use of force against civil aircraft is the basic principle in international law. Sovereign responsibility theory also provides a theoretical basis for it. For MH17 crash, internationally wrongful acts and injury consequence are undisputable. In an air crash, attribution of conduct to a state includes armed forces'misconduct, collision of a state aircraft with foreign civil aircraft on account of improper operation, criminals' illegal interfering behavior to foreign civil aircraft, state's organ or individual errors or mistake, behavior of armed rebellion and so on. The state providing weapons for the attackers of the civil craft have certain imputations. Fault elements have important influence on the way and degree of state responsibility for international disaster. Ukraine as a sovereignty state at least has fault liability for MH17 crash. There are barriers to the implementation of state responsibility for the international air disasters, but there is still a path, such as political solution, international litigation and negotiations.

Key words: Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17, international air crash, damage compensation, responsibility of state, sovereign responsibility

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