北京航空航天大学学报(社会科学版) ›› 2015, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (2): 55-67.DOI: 10.13766/j.bhsk.1008-2204.2014.0619

• 本期特约专家稿件 • 上一篇    下一篇

为国家学辩护

马丁·洛克林   

  1. 伦敦政治经济学院 法律系, 伦敦 WC2A 2AE
  • 收稿日期:2014-11-28 出版日期:2015-03-25 发布日期:2015-04-23
  • 作者简介:马丁·洛克林,男,教授,先后毕业于伦敦政治经济学院、华威大学和哈佛大学法学院。曾执教于格拉斯哥大学和曼彻斯特大学。主要研究领域是宪法理论,代表作有《英国宪法导论》《公法的基础》《公法的理念》《剑与天平:对法与政治关系的省察》《公法与政治理论》等,邮箱为m.loughlin@ise.ac.uk.译者简介: 王锴(1978- ),男,陕西汉中人,教授,博士,研究方向为宪法学、行政法学.
  • 基金资助:

    2012年北京航空航天大学校级研究生精品课立项(295278)

In Defence of Staatslehre

Martin Loughlin   

  1. Law School, London School of Economics and Political Science, London WC2A 2AE, UK
  • Received:2014-11-28 Online:2015-03-25 Published:2015-04-23

摘要:

现代宪法面临一些新的挑战,这些挑战包括:今天的政府被迫通过国际网络与其他政府进行协商(这导致了内外区别的模糊),同时也不断地让私人行动者去加入满足公共目标的活动(这导致了公私区别的模糊)。为了克服这些挑战,一些学者提出要么推动全球立宪主义去补偿国家层面的去宪法化,要么主张立宪主义是一种自由立场的概念以及作为形塑国内和全球治理实践的上位概念。但是,这些主张缺乏国家学的根基,忽视了主权、国家、宪法这些概念的本质。宪法是关于主权、国家的构成规则,它不同于政府的组织法。这些构成规则最基本的要素是“政治权力最终来自于人民”的普遍信念。因此,现代宪法话语用在国际层面是不恰当的。这导致了一种自由立场的宪法化进程的出现。但是,由于缺少人民的基石,这个进程将变成一种新现象——威权立宪主义。

关键词: 主权, 国家, 宪法, 政治法, 国家学

Abstract:

Modern constitution confronts a lot of new challenges. These challenges include: governments today have felt obliged both to enter into intricate arrangements with other governments through international networks (which can lead to a blurring of the inside-outside distinction) and increasingly to involve private actors in joint arrangements to meet public objectives (which can lead to a blurring of the public-private distinction). To overcome these questions, some scholars suggest either promote global constitutionalism to compensate for a perceived de-constitutionalization at the national level, or conceive constitutionalism as a free-standing and overarching concept which shapes the practices of governance from local to global levels. But these suggestions lack the background of Staatslehre and ignore the nature of sovereignty, state and constitution. Different from organizational law about government, constitution is the constituting rule about sovereignty and state. The most basic element of constitution is the generally accepted belief that political power ultimately rests with an entity called the people. So, modern constitutional discourse will be unduly strained at the international level if it continues to be founded on the idea of popular anthorization. This realization has led to the emergence of constitutinalization as a free-standing process of rationalist constitutional design. Without the people as a long-stop, the process threatens to transform itself into a new phenomenon, which might be called authoritarian constitutionalism.

Key words: sovereignty, State, Constitution, Political Law, Staatslehre

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