北京航空航天大学学报(社会科学版) ›› 2015, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (1): 41-52.DOI: 10.13766/j.bhsk.1008-2204.2014.0638

• 本期特约专家稿件 • 上一篇    下一篇

国际民航安全法律-基于马航MH370事件和MH17事件的分析

董念清   

  1. 中国民航管理干部学院 航空法研究中心, 北京 100102
  • 收稿日期:2014-12-04 出版日期:2015-01-25 发布日期:2015-01-24
  • 作者简介:董念清(1969-),男,甘肃通渭人,教授,博士,研究方向为航空法和经济法.

International Civil Aviation Safety Law: Based on Analysis of Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 and MH17

Dong Nianqing   

  1. Center of Air Law, Civil Aviation Management Institute of China, Beijing 100102, China
  • Received:2014-12-04 Online:2015-01-25 Published:2015-01-24

摘要:

马来西亚航空公司MH370事件和MH17事件的发生,暴露出了国际航空安全法律机制存在两大缺陷或漏洞:一是在航空器运行信息的提供和分享上,缺乏强有力的法律保障;二是在武装冲突地区安全风险的防范上,没有建立起安全风险评估制度与预警机制。基于国际条约达成的漫长性、条约内容的原则性、执行上的非强制性等原因,试图通过国际法来弥补或完善这两方面的缺陷,不具有可行性。因此,完善航空适航法律制度,明确航空器制造商、发动机制造商和航空器运营人各自提供航空器运营信息的责任、义务、范围,通过国内法建立起安全风险评估制度与预警机制,将有助于保障国际航空安全,避免类似事故的再次发生。

关键词: 国际航空安全, 法律机制, 国际法, 马航MH370航班, 马航MH17航班

Abstract:

The missing Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 and the downed Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 shows that international aviation safety legal mechanism has two major defects. The first is the lack of legal protection on how aircraft operators and manufactures provide and share the information of aircraft operation. The second is the lack of safety risk assessment system and early warning mechanism in the areas of armed conflicts. It is not practicable to improve the defects by international law, for it is very difficult to sign an international treaty among states in the first place, then the ambiguity of the treaty makes it difficult to implement, let alone the non-mandatory in execution. Therefore, to ensure international aviation safety and avoid similar accidents from happening again, it is necessary to improve the domestic legal system of aircraft airworthiness, specifying the responsibility of aircraft manufacturers, engine manufacturers and aircraft operators on the publicity and sharing of information of aircraft operation. At the same time, it is also very important to establish the safety risk assessment system and early warning mechanism in the domestic law.

Key words: international aviation safety, legal mechanism, International Law, Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370, Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17

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