北京航空航天大学学报(社会科学版) ›› 2016, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (3): 68-74.DOI: 10.13766/j.bhsk.1008-2204.2015.0542

• 本期特约专家稿件 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国经济总量和人均水平的国际地位差异

郑海涛, 任若恩, 柏满迎   

  1. 北京航空航天大学 经济管理学院, 北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2015-11-12 出版日期:2016-05-25 发布日期:2016-05-26
  • 作者简介:郑海涛(1978-),男,湖北宜昌人,副教授,博士,研究方向为国际竞争力和保险精算.
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金资助项目(71371021,71333014,71171009);北京市哲学社会科学规划项目(11JGC102);广义虚拟经济研究专项面上项目(GX2014-1007(M))

Difference of International Position between Gross Economic Size and Economic Level per Capita in China

ZHANG Haitao, REN Ruoen, BAI Manying   

  1. School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083, China
  • Received:2015-11-12 Online:2016-05-25 Published:2016-05-26

摘要:

总量GDP、人均GDP、总量财富和人均财富是用来认识和确定中国经济的国际比较位置的四个维度。以2011年轮国际比较项目(ICP)报告的购买力平价为货币转换系数,测算了世界主要国家的以美元计价的上述四个变量,从国家维和时间维两个角度来评价中国经济的国际比较位置。研究表明:中国2014年GDP已达到了17.6万亿美元,为美国GDP的101.1%,成为世界第一经济大国。但是,中国的人均GDP水平、人均消费水平、居民财富和人均财富水平仍然较低,分别排在90名外、120名外、第3名和60名外,仅是美国的21%、10.1%、30.8%和7.4%,中国居民的金融财富要远远小于美日。从时间维来看,中国2013年的人均GDP水平与美国1941年的相当,中国的人均GDP水平直到21世纪中叶才有可能达到美日等发达国家现在的水平。中国处在经济第一大国与人均水平低下(特别是人均居民消费水平更低)的一种经济状态,仍然是发展中国家,因此,"稳增长"是中国经济当前的首要任务,而"惠民生"是中国经济发展的最终目标,以改变当前这种矛盾状态。

关键词: 国际经济比较, 国内生产总值, 居民财富, 人均消费, 购买力平价

Abstract:

GDP, GDP per capita, national wealth and wealth per capita are often used to measure China's economic position in the world. The paper uses these variables of world major countries dominated in dollars to evaluate the international comparison position of China's economy from the perspective of state and time dimensions by using PPP from the ICP 2011 as the currency conversion factor. The findings are as followed: China's GDP ranks first, up to 17.6 trillion dollars, 101.1% of the GDP of USA. However, GDP per capita, household wealth and wealth per capita are very small, only 21%、30.8% and 7.4% of the corresponding ones in USA and rank more than the 90th, 3rd and more than 60th respectively worldwide. Financial wealth of Chinese household is much less than that of USA and Japan. GDP per capita in 2013 in China was similar to that of USA in 1941. Not until the middle of the century can China be able to possibly reach the current economic level of the developed countries, such as USA and Japan. Though China ranks first in terms of economic size, GDP per capita is very low, especially the consumption per capita which is even much lower. So China is still a developing country. To solve the problem, China should, first of all, ensure steady growth and set "benefiting the people" as the ultimate goal of China's economic development.

Key words: international comparison, gross domestic product, household wealth, consumption per capita, purchasing power parity

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