北京航空航天大学学报(社会科学版) ›› 2017, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (3): 41-47.DOI: 10.13766/j.bhsk.1008-2204.2016.0215

• 本期特约专家稿件 • 上一篇    下一篇

慈善募捐中隐私权保护的冲突与协调

褚蓥   

  1. 华南师范大学 公共管理学院, 广东 广州 510631
  • 收稿日期:2016-06-06 出版日期:2017-05-25 发布日期:2017-05-27
  • 作者简介:褚蓥(1983-),男,浙江湖州人,讲师,博士,研究方向为慈善法.

Conflicts and Coordination of Privacy Protection in Charity Fundraising

CHU Ying   

  1. School of Public Administration, South China Normal University, Guangzhou Guangdong 510631, China
  • Received:2016-06-06 Online:2017-05-25 Published:2017-05-27

摘要:

慈善募捐会在信息披露、与慈善组织共享信息、与商业机构共享信息这三种情况下对捐赠人的隐私权造成侵害。这三种情况的法理基础与法律关系各不相同,其中信息披露牵涉捐赠人的隐私权、言论自由权与公众的知情权的冲突;与慈善组织共享信息,牵涉慈善组织经济利益与捐赠人隐私权的冲突;与商业机构共享信息,则涉及募捐方式的问题。目前,中国尚未有针对慈善募捐过程中捐赠者隐私保护的相关规则。该情况并不利于对捐赠人权益之保护,也不利于慈善行业之健康发展。因此,中国应尽快研究相关法律之创设,引入"明示/默示规则"等先进制度,并创设相关信息管理机关,以填补这一立法空白。同时,还应区分一次侵权与二次侵权,对于二次侵权,应引入二次侵权保护目录规则,并设立专门的隐私信息管理机关。

关键词: 隐私权, 募捐, 信息披露, 权利冲突, 隐私侵权

Abstract:

Charity fundraising may infract donors' privacy in the circumstances of the information disclosure, information sharing with other charitable or commercial organizations. These three kinds of circumstances are different in the juridical basis and legal relationship. The information disclosure involves conflicts among donors' privacy, free speech and the right to know of the public. The information sharing among charitable organizations involves conflicts between the interest of charitable organizations and the donors' privacy. Besides, the information sharing between charitable organizations and commercial institutes involves the problem of the fundraising measures. Now, China has not laid down donors' privacy protection regulations concerning charity fundraising. This situation is unfavorable for the protection of the donors' rights and interests, and also for the healthy development of the charitable industry. Therefore, in order to solve this problem, China shall study this division as soon as possible, and introduce the Opt-in/Opt-out regulations and create the related information-administration authority. Meanwhile, the first infringement and secondary infringement should be distinguished. For the secondary infringement, the protection directory rules should be introduced, and specialized authority for privacy protection should be established.

Key words: right of privacy, fundraising, information disclosure, conflict of rights, infringement of privacy

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