北京航空航天大学学报(社会科学版) ›› 2018, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (4): 20-26.DOI: 10.13766/j.bhsk.1008-2204.2018.0170

• 法学论坛 • 上一篇    下一篇

住宅小区车位权属问题研究

李贝妮   

  1. 清华大学 法学院, 北京 100084
  • 收稿日期:2018-05-22 出版日期:2018-07-25 发布日期:2018-07-26
  • 作者简介:李贝妮(1994-),女,内蒙古乌海人,博士研究生,研究方向为民商法.

On Ownership of Community Parking Space

LI Beini   

  1. Law School, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
  • Received:2018-05-22 Online:2018-07-25 Published:2018-07-26

摘要:

针对小区车位的归属和流转问题,《中华人民共和国物权法》第74条和《关于审理建筑物区分所有权纠纷案件具体应用法律若干问题的解释》第5条对其权属进行了初步的规定,但其规定不明确,过于原则化,导致不同种类的车位在适用时陷入困境。各地的管理条例虽然对其归属和流转进行了细致的规定,但是其侧重点不同,因此,中国并没有一个统一的法律体系解决小区车位的权属问题。为此,在解决住宅小区车位的问题上,主张以建筑物区分所有权制度为框架。车位可划分为独立停车位、地面停车位、地下停车位、首层架空型车位和楼顶平台车位。根据停车位的不同特点,在建筑物区分所有权的理论框架下对其能否作为专有权的客体进行分类讨论,最终采用区分原则对其进行权利归属的确定。对于开发商所有的车位,从规范的性质、规范的具体操作和违背规定三个方面细化"优先满足业主需求"的规定,从而全面保护业主利益。在借鉴中国台湾地区车位制度的基础上提出应当建立法定配置比例。鉴于开发商对于房地产信息和价格的绝对优势,应当建立房地产企业开发成本费用信息披露制度,并在不动产统一登记的浪潮下,完善车位的登记制度。对于和车位联系密切,且具有管理功能的业主委员会,随着民众权利意识的觉醒和参与度的提升,其能力大大加强,应当充分发挥其作用。

关键词: 住宅小区车位, 建筑物区分所有权, 业主共有, 流转限制, 车位登记制

Abstract:

China has not yet formed its own unified legal system for the parking space authority in solving issues on community parking space ownership and transfer. Though Article 74 of Property Law of People's Republic of China and Article 5 of Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court concerning Some Issues on Application of Law for the Trial of Cases on Disputes over Condominium Ownership have introduced initial regulations, they are unclear, causing dilemmas in applications for various types of parking spaces. As for local regulations, although more detailed provisions have been introduced, there are different emphases. This paper proposes applying Condominium Ownership as a framework for issues on community parking spaces. Parking spaces can be divided into various types including independent parking spaces, ground parking spaces, underground parking spaces, parking spaces on the first open floor, and parking spaces on the roof platform. Based on different characteristics of various parking spaces, classified analyses are conducted to discuss whether these parking spaces could be taken as objects of exclusive rights under the theoretical framework of Condominium Ownership, and finally rights of ownership are determined according to the Principle of Distinction. For parking spaces owned by the developer, the "priority to meet the needs of the owners" requirement is refined from three aspects:the nature of the specification, the detailed operations of the specification, and the violations of the specification, so as to fully protect the interests of the owners. Based on the reference to the parking space system in Taiwan, this paper also proposes that a legal proportion of the allocation should be established. In view of the developer's absolute superiority in real estate information and prices, a disclosure system for the development cost of real estate companies should be established, and a registration system for parking spaces should be improved under the unified real estate registration waves. For Owner Committees, they should make full play of the committee system, as they are closely linked to parking spaces with management functions and their capabilities are greatly enhanced with the awakening of people's rights consciousness and more participation.

Key words: community parking space, condominium ownership, c-ownership of community, restructure of ownership, registration of parking space

中图分类号: