北京航空航天大学学报(社会科学版) ›› 2018, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (5): 69-77,109.DOI: 10.13766/j.bhsk.1008-2204.2018.0205

• 航空法与外层空间法 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国通用航空民事损害赔偿制度研究

杨彩霞, 方远   

  1. 北京航空航天大学 法学院, 北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2018-07-06 出版日期:2018-09-25 发布日期:2018-10-08
  • 作者简介:杨彩霞(1977-),女,山西大同人,副教授,博士,研究方向为国际私法、航空航天法.

Civil Compensation System of General Aviation in China

YANG Caixia, FANG Yuan   

  1. School of Law, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083, China
  • Received:2018-07-06 Online:2018-09-25 Published:2018-10-08

摘要:

随着中国通用航空事业的不断发展,通用航空民事损害赔偿领域法律规制的缺陷也日益凸显。中国通用航空的法律体系由法律、行政法规、部门规章及行政规范性文件组成。与美国以产品侵权责任为中心的通用航空民事损害赔偿制度相比,中国通用航空的民事损害赔偿具有合同责任与侵权责任并重的特点:当事人既可基于违约损害赔偿请求权主张权利,亦可基于侵权损害赔偿请求权主张权利,而在两者竞合的情形下须择一行使。通过将中国现有规定与《蒙特利尔公约》中的相关规定进行比较,可以发现,中国通用航空的民事损害赔偿制度存在着归责原则有待完善、缺乏有关赔偿限额的规定、强制责任保险适用范围过窄等主要不足。针对以上问题,建议中国《民用航空法》在对通用航空的规制中促进归责原则由无过错责任向过错推定责任与严格责任过渡,引入责任限额制度并扩大强制责任保险的适用范围。

关键词: 通用航空, 民事损害赔偿, 归责原则, 责任限额, 航空责任险

Abstract:

With the continuous development of China's general aviation industry in recent years, the defects of its legal regulations in the field of civil damage compensation have become increasingly obvious. The legal system of general aviation in China is constituted by laws, administrative regulations, departmental rules and administrative normative documents. In comparison with the civil compensation system of general aviation in US which is centered on product tort liability, the compensation system of China focuses on both contract liability and tort liability:victims may request compensation basing on the claim for breach of contract or the claim for tort damages and have to choose one under the circumstance that both of them can be applied. By comparing the existing regulations with the relevant provisions of the Montreal Convention, the drawbacks of the existing regulations can be concluded into three aspects:the imperfection of the liability principle, the lack of provisions for compensation limit, and the excessively narrow scope of the application of compulsory liability insurance. Accordingly, the principle of liability is required to be transferred from no-fault liability to presumed liability and strict liability, the system of liability limit should be introduced to the present regulations, and the application scope of aviation liability insurance is supposed to be expanded in the general aviation part of Civil Aviation Law.

Key words: general aviation, civil damage compensation, liability principle, liability limit, aviation liability insurance

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