北京航空航天大学学报(社会科学版) ›› 2020, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (2): 143-153.DOI: 10.13766/j.bhsk.1008-2204.2018.0297

• 博士生论坛 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国司法鉴定市场化的危机与应对

王媛媛1, 邢哲2   

  1. 1. 北京航空航天大学 法学院, 北京 100083;
    2. 中国政法大学 证据科学院, 北京 100088
  • 收稿日期:2018-10-17 出版日期:2020-03-25 发布日期:2020-04-01
  • 作者简介:王媛媛(1992-),女,河北邢台人,博士研究生,研究方向为为民事诉讼法、证据法.
  • 基金资助:

    司法部2017年度国家法治与法律理论研究项目(17SFB2023)

Crisis and Countermeasures of Marketization of Judicial Identification in China

WANG Yuanyuan1, XING Zhe2   

  1. 1. School of Law, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083, China;
    2. Institute of Evidence Law and Forensic Science, China University of Political Science and Law, Beijing 100088, China
  • Received:2018-10-17 Online:2020-03-25 Published:2020-04-01

摘要:

由于鉴定机构的中立地位与市场追逐利益的价值冲突,司法鉴定的市场化改革之路颇为艰泞。相关立法的空白、监管的缺失,给部分以利益为导向的鉴定机构僭越实施非正当的职业行为以可趁之机,从而破坏司法鉴定机构应当保持的中立性,也给司法公信力带来沉痛的伤害。对于出现的问题,很多学者不能跳出法律这一知识背景进行研究,研究思路和视角受到很大局限。司法鉴定改革不仅仅是司法鉴定规范本身那么简单,塑造良好的市场环境也是司法鉴定行业良性发展的根本。在市场规制方面,司法鉴定行业亟需在界分市场化与商业化的基础上整合资源,调整鉴定机构行业进入壁垒和退出机制,同时,以司法鉴定分类管理的方式建立质量评级体系。在法律规制层面,司法鉴定证据制度的完善有利于加强审判系统与鉴定系统的对接,降低不对称信息传递的可能性。司法鉴定中立性与市场化的平衡更有赖于增强立法供给,制定《司法鉴定法》并完善包括监管主体、方式、权限、责任在内的监管体系。

关键词: 司法鉴定, 市场化, PEST理论, 市场规制, 法律规制

Abstract:

Due to the value conflict between the neutral status of appraisal institutions and the beneficial oriented market, the marketization of the judicial identification's reform appears to be quite challenging. Meanwhile, the gaps in relevant legislation and the lack of supervision have all made money the priority of all, giving some accreditation bodies an opportunity to take advantage. Judical expertise institutions are profit-oriented, and make use of their own positions, in order to conduct unfair career paths, thus undermining the neutrality that the judicial appraisal institutions should maintain, and further seriously destroying the credibility of the judiciary. However, many scholars cannot get out of the knowledge of law for their research, resulting in the limited research ideas and perspectives. The reform of judicial identification is not only simply about the specification of the judicial identification itself, but also to establish a healthy market environment, as it is the basis for the sound development of the judicial identification industry. In terms of the market regulations, it is urgent for the judicial appraisal industry to integrate resources on the basis of demarcation of marketization and commercialization, and adjust the entry barriers and exit mechanism. Moreover, it is necessary to establish quality rating in the way of judicial appraisal classification management. In the aspect of legal regulation, the perfection of the judicial expertise evidence system is conducive to strengthen the connection between the judicial system and the appraisal system and reduce the asymmetric information transmission. The balance between the neutrality of judicial appraisal and marketization is more dependent on the enhancement of legislative supply, the enactment of the judicial appraisal law and the improvement of the regulatory system including the regulatory subject, mode, authority and responsibility.

Key words: judicial identification, marketization, PEST theory, market regulation, legal regulation

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