北京航空航天大学学报(社会科学版) ›› 2019, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (1): 113-122.DOI: 10.13766/j.bhsk.1008-2204.2018.0324

• 本期特约专家稿件 • 上一篇    下一篇

美国无人机立法新动态及其启示

杨宽1, 费秀艳2   

  1. 1. 北京理工大学 法学院, 北京 100081;
    2. 华东政法大学 科学研究院, 上海 201620
  • 收稿日期:2018-11-02 出版日期:2019-01-25 发布日期:2019-02-19
  • 作者简介:杨宽(1987-),男,四川泸州人,助理研究员,博士,研究方向为国际法、航空航天法.

New Development of US Legislation on Unmanned Aircraft and Its Inspirations

YANG Kuan1, FEI Xiuyan2   

  1. 1. School of Law, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China;
    2. Institute of Social Sciences, East China University of Political Science and Law, Shanghai 201620, China
  • Received:2018-11-02 Online:2019-01-25 Published:2019-02-19

摘要:

随着无人机的广泛应用,美国逐步制定了一系列无人机监管规则,并根据无人机活动的发展及监管需求不断调整其无人机立法。最近几年来美国提出了数量众多的无人机法案、制定了范围广泛的无人机监管法规、管理文件等,进一步明确了无人机监管规则,体现了美国无人机立法的新动态和发展方向。这包括建立专门性的无人机空中交通管理机构、完善无人机登记管理和驾驶员管理、严格无人机的运行许可及操作规则、细化无人机分类管理及加强无人机所涉隐私保护等。我国无人机立法滞后于无人机应用及产业的发展,美国无人机相关具体规则和管控方式,及其将无人机纳入国家空域体系、保障航空安全并兼顾产业发展利益的原则,对于完善中国无人机监管制度具有借鉴意义。

关键词: 无人机, 无人机监管, 运行规则, 航空安全, 美国无人机立法

Abstract:

With the wide use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), the U.S. has gradually formulated a series of rules concerning UAS regulation, and continuously adapted such rules to the development of UAS activities and its regulation demands. In recent years, the U.S. proposed a number of new acts, formulated extensive regulations and documents regarding UAS, in order to specify the rules regarding UAS. This reflected the new trends and development of the U.S. civil UAS legislation, including to establish specific air traffic control body for UAS, improve UAS registration and pilot regulation, strengthen the operation permit and operational rules for UA, detail UAS classification, strengthen privacy protection and so on. The legal regulation of UAS in China lags behind the application of UAS and the development of the industry. The UAS rules and regulation mode in the U.S., as well as the principles of integrating UAS into the national airspace system and ensuring aviation safety while taking into account industrial benefits, can be of inspiration for improving the regulatory regime of UAS in China.

Key words: unmanned aircraft, unmanned aircraft regulation, operation rules, aviation safety, U.S. unmanned aircraft legislation

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