北京航空航天大学学报(社会科学版) ›› 2019, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (4): 96-102.DOI: 10.13766/j.bhsk.1008-2204.2019.0129

• 本期特约专家稿件 • 上一篇    下一篇

民用航空器致害高度危险责任条款的适用探讨

于丹   

  1. 华东政法大学 国际法学院, 上海 200042
  • 收稿日期:2017-04-19 出版日期:2019-07-25 发布日期:2019-09-06
  • 作者简介:于丹(1977-),女,辽宁沈阳人,副教授,博士,研究方向为国际私法、航空法.
  • 基金资助:

    司法部国家法治与法学理论研究项目(17SFB3039)

On the Application of Civil Aircraft Ultra-hazardous Liability Clause

YU Dan   

  1. International Law School, East China University of Political Science and Law, Shanghai 200042, China
  • Received:2017-04-19 Online:2019-07-25 Published:2019-09-06

摘要:

民用航空器致害的高度危险责任源于《民法通则》和《侵权责任法》的规定。关于该项责任能否适用于旅客在航空运输中遭受的损害,中国理论与实践中均存在争议。从法律规范的体系化解释、目的解释等方法来分析,该责任条款仅应当适用于航空器作业给第三人造成的损害。在确定民用航空器给地(水)面第三人造成损害的责任时,《侵权责任法》71条与《民用航空法》的地面责任条款,存在法律适用的规范冲突。其后生效的《侵权责任法》第71条,因在精神与内容方面均有了实质性的发展,应取代民航法规定得到优先适用。

关键词: 民用航空器, 高度危险责任, 适用范围, 法律规范冲突, 他人损害

Abstract:

The ultra-hazardous liability of civil aircraft is stipulated by both General Principles of Civil Law and Tort Law. It is a controversial question on both theoretical and practice level as to whether the damage of air passengers is fallen into the scope of ultra-hazardous liability of civil aircraft clause. By analyzing from the perspective of systemic explanation method of law, policy stance behind the ultra-hazardous liability and nature of air carrier liability, it is concluded that only third party who sustained damage by the operation of civil aircraft shall be compensated according to the ultra-hazardous liability clauses. When dealing with the compensation of ground damage, conflicts may arise between Article 71 of Tort law and Article 157 of Civil Aviation Law. Since Article 71 of the Tort Law sustains basic change as to the constitution of liability, it shall prevail the application of Article 157 of Civil Aviation Law.

Key words: civil aircraft, ultra-hazardous liability, scope of application, application conflicts between laws, damage sustained by another person

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