北京航空航天大学学报(社会科学版) ›› 2019, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (5): 35-41.DOI: 10.13766/j.bhsk.1008-2204.2019.0247

• 新法学论坛 • 上一篇    下一篇

变与不变:论网络信息时代有相对人意思表示的生效

张芸   

  1. 西南财经大学 法学院, 四川 成都 611130
  • 收稿日期:2019-08-09 出版日期:2019-09-25 发布日期:2019-11-01
  • 作者简介:张芸(1984-),女,湖南怀化人,副教授,博士,工信部工业和信息化法治战略与管理重点实验室研究员,国家网信办和教育部网络空间国际治理研究基地研究员,研究方向为民商法.
  • 基金资助:

    国家社会科学基金青年项目(19CFX056);中央高校基本科研业务费青年教师成长项目(JBK1901009);四川省哲学社会科学重点研究基地中国金融法研究中心年度规划项目(19CFL01)

Change and Unchanged: Effectiveness of a Declaration of Intent to Absent in Age of Network Information

ZHANG Yun   

  1. Law School, Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, Chengdu Sichuan 611130, China
  • Received:2019-08-09 Online:2019-09-25 Published:2019-11-01

摘要:

网络信息时代,通讯方式不断升级,《民法总则》对这一社会发展现实情况予以了回应,第137条第2款第2句以"进入相关系统"作为无约定时数据电文意思表示生效判断准则。但该规定对传真、电子邮件、即时通讯工具等作出的意思表示生效问题不能完全适用,略显粗糙。对该规定进行解释时应回到意思表示生效的传统理论:第一,以是否有信息载体使意思表示有体化为标准区分"对话方式"与"非对话方式",无载体及有载体的意思表示分别对应"对话方式"以及"非对话方式"作出的意思表示;第二,考虑交易风险的合理分配,在特殊情况下,对"到达主义"和"了解主义"理论进行微调;第三,兼顾数据电文意思表示"到达"成立的事实要素以及规范性要素,排除"通常情况"下不应被视为到达的情形。

关键词: 民法总则, 意思表示, 数据电文, 到达主义, 了解主义, 风险分配

Abstract:

In the age of network information, communication methods are constantly upgraded. The General Provisions of Civil Law responds to this trend, Article 137 paragraph 2 sentence 2 determines whether the declaration of intent in the form of a data message is effective when there is no convention and the criterion for determining is "access to the relevant system". However, this rule does not fully apply to fax, e-mail, instant messaging tools, etc,and this rule is a little gruff. When interpreting this provision, we should re-use the traditional theory of effectiveness of a declaration of intent. First, the information carrier makes the declaration of intent physical, which is the standard for distinguishing between "conversation mode" and "non-conversation mode", declaration of intent without carrier and with carrier correspond to "non-conversation mode" and "non-conversation mode" respectively. Second, we should consider the reasonable allocation of trading risks. In special circumstances, we must adjust the theory of "reachingism" and "understanding". Third, we must take into account the factual elements and normative elements of "arrival" of the declaration of intent in the form of a data message and rule out situations that should not be considered arrivals under the "normal circumstances".

Key words: General provisions of civil law, declaration of intent, data message, theory of reachingism, understanding doctrine, allocation of risks

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