北京航空航天大学学报社科版 ›› 2021, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (2): 139-146.DOI: 10.13766/j.bhsk.1008-2204.2019.0408

• 航空法与外层空间法 • 上一篇    下一篇

论中国民航事故调查制度的完善——在“恰当文化”语境下

黄毓慧, 张雪莹   

  1. 华东政法大学 国际法学院, 上海 200042
  • 收稿日期:2019-11-28 发布日期:2021-04-02
  • 作者简介:黄毓慧(1994—),女,浙江绍兴人,硕士研究生,研究方向为国际法与国际航空法.

Improving China's Civil Aircraft Accident Investigation Rules under “Just Culture”

HUANG Yuhui, ZHANG Xueying   

  1. School of International Law, East China University of Political Science and Law, Shanghai 200042, China
  • Received:2019-11-28 Published:2021-04-02

摘要: 在民航事故调查制度中引入"恰当文化",旨在建立"安全"与"归责"之间的适度平衡,避免民航从业者因报告"无心之失"而受到惩罚,从而形成民航人员积极报告、信息共享的"安全文化",提升民航系统的整体安全。通过分析"恰当文化"的源起与国际民航事故调查制度引入该理念的表现,明确在《芝加哥公约》及其《附件十三》的要求下,缔约各国在"涉外"和"国内"民航事故调查制度中实施"恰当文化"的义务。在总结中国现行制度不足之处的基础上,提出在"恰当文化"语境下完善中国民航事故调查制度应排除"归责性目的"以明确航空器事故调查目的唯一性、通过调查人员的独立实现航空器事故调查程序独立,纳入"平衡测试"与航空安全信息保护的规定,并对事故调查报告能否用于归责性程序等问题予以明确。

关键词: 航空器事故调查, 恰当文化, 系统安全, 《芝加哥公约》, 《附件十三》, 独立调查

Abstract: The establishment of "just culture" under the civil aircraft accident investigation system aims to achieve a proper balance between safety and accountability, under which civil aviation practitioners are encouraged to report their mistakes without the fear of being punished, so as to create a "safety culture" of free reporting and information sharing, and realize the objective of aircraft accident investigation and promote the aviation safety. This paper first starts with the origin of "just culture" and its application in the investigation of international civil aircraft accidents. Under the Chicago Convention and its Annex 13, State Parties need to apply "just culture" in their own aircraft accident investigation rules. After reviewing the problem of current rules of China's civil aircraft accident investigation, this paper suggests that with the application of "just culture", China's civil aircraft accident rules should preclude the accountability to achieve the objectivity of the investigation; should achieve the independency of investigation procedures through the independency of the investigators; should determine the use of information gathered in accident investigation through the establishment of a "balance test"; and should enact the regulations regarding the use of safety information and the adoption of the investigation final report as evidence in responsibility apportion procedures.

Key words: aircraft accident investigation, just culture, system safety, Chicago Convention, Annex 13, independent investigation

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