北京航空航天大学学报社科版 ›› 2020, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (5): 1-10.DOI: 10.13766/j.bhsk.1008-2204.2020.0359

• 新法学论坛 • 上一篇    下一篇

论抵押财产转让对抵押权的影响——以《民法典》第403,404,406条的协调适用为视角

王琦   

  1. 北京航空航天大学 法学院, 北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2020-07-22 发布日期:2020-10-10
  • 作者简介:王琦(1986-),男,湖南郴州人,讲师,博士,研究方向为民法学.
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金青年项目(19CFX056)

Influence of Transaction of Mortgaged Property on Hypothec: Systematic Application of Article 403, 404, 406 Civil Code

WANG Qi   

  1. School of Law, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083, China
  • Received:2020-07-22 Published:2020-10-10

摘要: 《民法典》第403,404,406条对抵押财产转让是否影响抵押权作出了新的规制,这三条间的关系有待厘清。第406条第1款第3句("抵押财产转让的,抵押权不受影响")需限缩于不动产抵押领域;在动产抵押领域,第403条第2分句和第404条作为特殊法优先适用,这两者各规定了一种针对特定动产上抵押权负担的消灭事由,前者是"善意受让人的无负担取得",后者是"正常经营转让规则"。由于《民法典》将"正常经营转让规则"扩展至固定动产抵押,这导致第403条第2分句和第404条之间出现高度复杂的竞合,对此需要通过逐步细化的案件类型区分来梳整。当动产抵押权未登记时,如果受让人为善意,第403条第2分句作为特别法优先适用;如果受让人为恶意,那么第404条可接续第403条第2分句适用,使得恶意受让人也能主张抵押权消灭。当动产抵押权已登记时,关键在于登记依照其内容是否能够对被转让的特定标的物产生公示力。如果能够,应当适用第403条第2分句的反面推论("已登记的动产抵押权,可以对抗善意第三人"),由此排除第404条的适用;否则的话,应肯定第404条的可适用性,使登记也不能阻止抵押权依照第404条消灭。

关键词: 抵押权, 不动产担保, 动产担保, 抵押财产转让, 善意取得, 《民法典》

Abstract: Civil Code Articles 403, 404 and 406 introduce new regulations on the transfer of mortgaged property,so their relationship needs to be clarified. Article 406, paragraph 1, sentence 3 should be limited to real estate mortgage. In the field of chattel mortgage Article 403, sub-sentence 2, and Article 404 take the role as lex specials, each of which provides a reason for the elimination of chattel mortgage. The former is the "burdenless acquisition by a bona fide assignee", while, the latter is the "rule of normal transaction". Since the "rule of normal transaction" is extended to fixed mortgage, there are highly complex conflicts between Article 403, sub-sentence 2 und Article 404. These conflicts can only be resolved by distinguishing different types of cases. When the chattel mortgage is not registered, Article 403, sub-sentence 2 shall prevail as lex specialis if the assignee is in good faith. If the assignee is malicious, then Article 404 applies in succession to Article 403, sub-sentence 2, so that the malicious assignee can also claim the elimination of the mortgage. When the chattel mortgage has been registered, the central issue is whether the registration content can cover the transacted specific subject. If not, the applicability of Article 404 should be affirmed so that registration does not prevent the elimination of the mortgage under Article 404.

Key words: hypothec, real estate mortgage, chattel mortgage, transaction of mortgaged property, bona fide acquisition, Civil Code

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