北京航空航天大学学报社科版 ›› 2021, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (6): 156-162.DOI: 10.13766/j.bhsk.1008-2204.2020.0386

• 博士生论坛 • 上一篇    下一篇

马克思“过渡时期”历史跨度的准确内涵及其当代启示

伍书颖   

  1. 清华大学 马克思主义学院, 北京 100872
  • 收稿日期:2020-08-11 发布日期:2021-12-03
  • 作者简介:伍书颖(1995—),女,河南信阳人,博士研究生,研究方向为马克思的东方社会理论.

Accurate Connotation of Historical Span of Marx’s “Transitional Period” and Its Contemporary Enlightenment

WU Shuying   

  1. School of Marxism, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100872, China
  • Received:2020-08-11 Published:2021-12-03

摘要: 历史唯物主义揭示了历史向世界历史转变、共产主义实现的历史必然性。但如何理解通往共产主义社会的具体历史进程,则是关乎现实与未来社会发展的重大课题,为此马克思在《哥达纲领批判》中明确划分了共产主义社会的两个阶段,明确了"过渡时期"的历史跨度。但是学界就这一理论却呈现出"小过渡"说和"大过渡"说两种理解范式。通过文本解读与现实历史进程的经验总结可以看到,前者缩短了无产阶级专政的时间跨度,后者模糊了共产主义社会第一阶段的任务和目标。基于此,文章提出"中过渡"视角,将过渡理解为从无产阶级领导革命夺取政权到"共产主义社会第一阶段的充分发展时期",这既符合马克思的本真含义,也为中国特色社会主义新时代的历史方位确立及其实践提供科学的理论前提。

关键词: 过渡时期, 共产主义社会第一阶段, 共产主义社会高级阶段, 人民民主专政

Abstract: Historical materialism reveals the historical inevitability of the transformation from history to world history and the realization of communism. However, how to understand the specific historical process leading to the Communist society is a major issue related to the development of reality and future society. Therefore, in the critique of Gotha Program, Marx clearly divided the two stages of Communist society and defined the historical span of "transitional period". However, there are two paradigms of understanding about this theory: the "short transition" theory and the "long transition" theory. Through textual interpretation and summary of the experience of historical process, we can see that the former theory shortens the time span of dictatorship of the proletariat, while the latter one blurs tasks and objectives of the first stage of the Communist society. Based on this, this study puts forward the theoretical perspective of "medium transition", which is understood as the period from the proletarian leading revolution to seizing power to "the full development period of the first stage of Communist society". This perspective conforms to the true meaning of Marx and provides scientific theoretical premise for the historical position and practice of the new era of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

Key words: transitional period, first stage of Communist society, advanced stage of Communist society, people’s democratic dictatorship

中图分类号: