北京航空航天大学学报社科版 ›› 2021, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (1): 31-41.DOI: 10.13766/j.bhsk.1008-2204.2020.0551

• 新法学论坛 • 上一篇    下一篇

卢曼社会系统论视野下的法律功能

余成峰   

  1. 北京航空航天大学 人文与社会科学高等研究院, 北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2020-11-27 发布日期:2021-02-02
  • 作者简介:余成峰(1982-),男,浙江温州人,副教授,博士,研究方向为比较法学、法律社会理论、网络法.
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金(20BFX008)

Legal Function from the Perspective of Luhmann's Social System Theory

YU Chengfeng   

  1. Institute for Advanced Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083, China
  • Received:2020-11-27 Published:2021-02-02

摘要: 在卢曼社会系统论视野下,法律是一种规范性期望,采取“不学习”的反事实性态度,从而反向达到对全社会的时间拘束的功能。为了稳定规范性期望,法律系统的功能分化,有赖于组织化的法律决断系统,决断系统通过规范的双重模式化,推动了法/不法二元代码的正式确立,使规范性期望在法律系统内获得稳定的实现,从而克服了一般社会层面的规范性期望的不足。法律系统与政治系统由此形成特定的结构耦合。法律的功能不是促成社会整合或社会控制,而是使规范性期望在时间上获得稳定的确保。法律的功能模式既不取决于主权者,也不取决于社会,而是在法律系统中被反身性地给定。法律在“二阶观察”的层次上调控自身,从而实现其运作的封闭和系统的分出。

关键词: 法律功能, 卢曼, 社会系统论, 时间拘束, 规范性期望, 政治系统, 社会控制

Abstract: From the perspective of Luhmann's social system theory, law is a normative expectation, adopting a counterfactual attitude of "not learning" so as to reversely achieve the function of time constraints on the whole society. In order to stabilize normative expectations, the functional differentiation of the legal system depends on an organized legal decision system. The decision system promotes the formal establishment of the legal/illegal binary code through the dual patterning of norms, making normative expectations in the legal system obtain a stable realization, thereby overcoming the shortcomings of normative expectations at the general social level. The legal system and the political system thus form a specific structural coupling. The function of law is not to promote social integration or social control, but to ensure that normative expectations are stable in time dimension. The functional model of law does not depend on the sovereign or society, but is given reflexively in the legal system. The law regulates itself at the level of "second-order observation" so as to realize the closure of its operation and the separation of the system.

Key words: legal function, Luhmann, social system theory, time constraint, normative expectation, political system, social control

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