北京航空航天大学学报社科版 ›› 2022, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (2): 142-150.DOI: 10.13766/j.bhsk.1008-2204.2021.0446

• 航空法与屋外空间 • 上一篇    下一篇

无人机分类监管:国际经验与中国路径

王锡柱   

  1. 中国民航大学 法学院, 天津 300300
  • 收稿日期:2021-07-20 发布日期:2022-03-30
  • 作者简介:王锡柱(1990—),男,山东东阿人,讲师,博士,研究方向为航空法.
  • 基金资助:
    教育部青年项目(20YJC820046);中央高校人文社会科学研究一般项目(XJ2021001801)

Classified Regulation of UAVs: International Experience and China’s Approach

WANG Xizhu   

  1. School of Law, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300, China
  • Received:2021-07-20 Published:2022-03-30

摘要: 无人机产业正成为航空业的新增长点。为有效平衡其产业发展与风险防控间的关系,众多监管主体采取了分类监管的方法对无人机实施监管。中国分类监管框架与具体监管规则的科学性尚有待提升,国际民航组织、欧盟和美国的分类监管制度可提供有益借鉴。在未来的制度完善中,中国立法可重点借鉴欧盟"开放类、特定类、认证类"的分类框架,结合中国实际情况制定监管规则。对开放类,以消除空域准入门槛为原则,重点借助市场与技术手段防范风险。对特定类,以简化程序为重点,吸纳多元监管主体与资源,回应差异化风险监管需求。对认证类,参照传统公共运输航空与通用航空的空域准入与运行规则,在必要时予以变通。

关键词: 无人机立法, 风险均衡, 监管资源, 分类监管, 立法模式

Abstract: The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV ) industry is becoming a new growth point of the aviation industry. In order to balance effectively the relationship between its industrial development and risk prevention and control, many regulatory bodies have adopted the classified approach to the regulation of UAVs. But China’s classified regulatory framework and it specific rules still need to be improved. The systems of International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO ), the EU and the US can provide useful reference for China. In the future, China can learn from the EU’s classification framework of "open category, specific category, certified category" to improve the classification system and formulate the rules based on China’s current situation. For the open category, China can adopt the principle of removing airspace access threshold, and prevent risks with the help of market and technical means. In terms of the specific category, China should focus on simplifying procedures, and set up diversified regulatory bodies and resources, thus meeting the needs of differentiated risk management. Concerning the certified category, China can refer to the airspace access and operation rules of traditional public transport aviation and general aviation, and make modifications when necessary.

Key words: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) legislation, risk parity, regulatory resource, classified regulation, legislation model

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