北京航空航天大学学报(社会科学版) ›› 2019, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (2): 8-18.DOI: 10.13766/j.bhsk.1008-2204.2019.0042

• 本期特约专家稿件 • 上一篇    下一篇

民法典合同编草案中保证制度的完善

徐同远   

  1. 华东政法大学 法律学院, 上海 201620
  • 收稿日期:2019-01-23 出版日期:2019-03-25 发布日期:2019-03-28
  • 作者简介:徐同远(1980-),男,山东滕州人,讲师,博士,研究方向为民商法.

Modification on Rules of Personal Security in Draft of Civil Code

XU Tongyuan   

  1. Law School, East China University of Political Science and Law, Shanghai 201620, China
  • Received:2019-01-23 Online:2019-03-25 Published:2019-03-28

摘要:

《民法典各分编(草案)》和《民法典合同编(草案)(二次审议稿)》关于保证的规定,还存在一些有待完善的地方。保证在两个草案中的位置需要调整。保证位于《民法典各分编(草案)》第二编合同和《民法典合同编(草案)(二次审议稿)》第十三章,夹杂在借款合同与租赁合同之间,与其功能和定位不符。应将保证从现在的位置调整至合同编第二分编最后。在体例上,保证在草案中分为两节,第一节一般规定和第二节保证责任。"一般规定"是提供公因式立法技术的体现。可是,就保证而言,在草案中缺乏被提取公因式的具体对象。因此,草案关于保证体例的设计,应予改变。保证与独立保证应实行统分结合,规定在同一章下。保证与担保物权在草案中有些规则是重复的。为避免由此带来的立法资源浪费,对它们应予压缩或者调整它们的位置。保证有民事保证与商事保证之分。在立法上如何处理这二者,在比较法上,因价值取向不同,而并无一定成规。草案对此应明确其价值取向,再行拟定规则。

关键词: 保证, 民法典, 独立保证, 民商合一, 保证方式

Abstract:

Specific rules on dependent personal security (cited as security) in Parts of Civil Code (Draft) and Book Contract of Civil Code(2nd Daft) still need further improvement and the position of security in this draft needs adjustment. Now it is in Chapter 13 in the second book (contract) in Parts of Civil Code (Draft), and the same chapter in Book Contract of Civil Code(2nd Daft), which is unfit, because this treatment ignores its function and character. This problem can be divided into two sections, namely the first section the general provisions and the section liability of security provider. The "general rules" are an embodiment of abstractions. However, as far as security is concerned, there is a lack of extracted objects in this Draft. Therefore, the structure of rules on specific rules on guarantees should be changed. Security has economic function in common with independent personal security. On this basis, they should be integrated and stipulated in the same chapter. There are some rules in the draft that security and real security are duplicated. They should be confined or adjusted in order to avoid the waste of limited legislative resources. Security can be divided into civil and commercial security. How to deal with them in legislation needs careful evaluation. From the point view of comparative laws, there is no fixed rule. This draft should clarify its value orientation and formulate rules.

Key words: personal security, civil code, independent personal security, unification of civil and commercial codes, forms of personal security

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