北京航空航天大学学报(社会科学版) ›› 2019, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (2): 52-59,126.DOI: 10.13766/j.bhsk.1008-2204.2019.0016

• 本期特约专家稿件 • 上一篇    下一篇

奥地利长期护理保障制度述评

赵斌   

  1. 中国劳动和社会保障科学研究院 医疗保险和护理保险研究室, 北京 100029
  • 收稿日期:2019-01-03 出版日期:2019-03-25 发布日期:2019-03-28
  • 作者简介:赵斌(1984-),男,山东-城人,助理研究员,博士,研究方向为为医疗保障和护理保障政策和实务.
  • 基金资助:

    国家社会科学基金青年项目"社会医疗保险‘新卑斯麦’改革模式的国际比较研究"(18CSH060)

Review of Austria's long-term care system

ZHAO Bin   

  1. Medical Insurance and Nursing Insurance Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Labor and Social Security, Beijing 100029, China
  • Received:2019-01-03 Online:2019-03-25 Published:2019-03-28

摘要:

奥地利是欧洲最典型的主要依仗老年现金津贴的国家,其制度尊重参保人对服务主体的选择权、支持非正规护理服务提供者提供服务、强调政府有限责任和俾斯麦传统。这一模式激活了家庭在护理中的作用。但居民对正规护理服务的支付能力仍然不足,津贴待遇泛国民化以及兜底的社会救助仍负担过重,财政筹资使其难以持续,其核心弊端是未能引导护理服务市场的发展。这一模式也并不符合中国当前的护理服务市场发育不足还需护理保障制度进行引导发展的情况。护理津贴仅适用于正规护理服务市场发育不足的情况。但是,现金津贴难以保证钱为所用,挪用等道德风险及重复鉴定问题严重。

关键词: 奥地利, 长期护理保障, 现金津贴, 护理服务, 护理待遇

Abstract:

Austria is the most typical country in European Union that relies mainly on cash allowance for the elderly. The design of Austria's system respects the insured's right to choose the service providers, supports informal care service providers, and emphasizes limited government responsibility and Bismarck tradition. This model provides sufficient support to informal nursing staff such as family members, activates the role of the family. However, even with subsidies, residents' ability to pay for formal care services is still insufficient. Subsidies are pan-national and the proportion of people enjoying them is too high. The burden of social assistance is still too heavy. Therefore, the biggest disadvantage of nursing allowance is its failure to guide the development of the nursing service market, which is not in line with the situation of insufficient development of our country's nursing service market. At the same time, cash treatment such as nursing allowance is especially suitable for the situation where the formal nursing service market is underdeveloped and the service supply is insufficient. However, it is difficult to ensure the use of money in cash allowance, misappropriation and other moral hazard problems are serious, and excessive identification has become a new problem.

Key words: Austria, long-term care, cash benefits, nursing service, nursing treatment

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