北京航空航天大学学报(社会科学版) ›› 2010, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (6): 34-37.

• 本期特约专家稿件 • 上一篇    下一篇

美国空警机上"无令状搜查、逮捕"行为的合宪分析

张君周   

  1. 中国政法大学 国际法学院, 北京 100088
  • 收稿日期:2010-09-15 出版日期:2010-12-20 发布日期:2011-01-24
  • 作者简介:张君周(1978-),女,山东郓城人,讲师,博士后,研究方向为证据法、国际航空犯罪.
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金资助项目(60879006)

An Analysis on the Constitutionality of Search and Arrest without a Warrant of Federal Air Marshal

ZHANG Jun-zhou   

  1. School of International law, China University of Political Science and Law, Beijing 100088, China
  • Received:2010-09-15 Online:2010-12-20 Published:2011-01-24

摘要:

作为联邦执法人员,美国空警多次在机上采取无令状的搜查、逮捕行为。对此,可以从三方面探讨这些行为的合宪性。首先,由于空警主要负责处理机上劫持、恐怖袭击等行为,因此重大的航空安全是获得令状例外的根本利益所在。其次,机上环境特殊、情况紧急,符合令状原则的"紧急情况"例外的适用条件。再次,空警的搜查、逮捕行为在无令状的情况下还应当满足宪法所要求的实质要件,即根据案情不同,确保采取措施时具备"相当理由"。

关键词: 美国联邦空警, 航空安全, 令状原则, 紧急情况, 相当理由

Abstract:

As the Federal law enforcement officer, Federal air marshal had searched and arrested without a warrant for several times. And, we can analyze the constitutionality of these measures from three aspects. First, significant aviation safety is the basic interests of warrant exception because an air marshal mainly deals with serious hijack or terrorists attacks. Second, the special circumstance of cabin and critical condition satisfies the condition of "emergency exception" of warrant. Third, even meeting the condition of warrant exception, an air marshal also needs to satisfy the "probable cause" requirement of Constitution when they make a search or an arrest.

Key words: Federal Air Marshal, aviation safety, principle of judicial warrant, emergency, probable cause

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