北京航空航天大学学报(社会科学版) ›› 2014, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (2): 22-27.DOI: 10.13766/j.bhsk.1008-2204.2013.0548

• 本期特约专家稿件 • 上一篇    下一篇

空间核动力源的国际法律规制

杨彩霞, 崔海豹   

  1. 北京航空航天大学 法学院, 北京 100191
  • 收稿日期:2013-11-29 出版日期:2014-03-25 发布日期:2014-03-24
  • 作者简介:杨彩霞(1977-),女,山西大同人,副教授,博士,研究方向为国际私法、仲裁法、航空航天法.
  • 基金资助:

    教育部人文社会科学研究资助项目(10YJC820031)

International Regulations on the Nuclear Power Source in Outer Space

Yang Caixia, Cui Haibao   

  1. Law School, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191, China
  • Received:2013-11-29 Online:2014-03-25 Published:2014-03-24

摘要:

空间核动力源的使用是满足人类深远太空探索任务动力源需求的必然选择。由于其本身固有的安全风险因素以及空间活动对地球的广泛影响,如何安全使用核动力源是国际社会需要共同面对的问题。目前,直接规范空间核动力源的国际文件只有1992年通过的《关于在外层空间使用核动力源的原则》以及2009年 制定的《外层空间核动力源应用安全框架》。该两文件为空间核动力源的应用提供了所应遵循的一般原则和具体的技术性规范,对于备受关注的安全问题也提供了相应的安全标准。但是,它们都属于软法,即该两文件本身并不具有法律拘束力,在适用上缺乏强制性。从空间立法的发展模式来看,短时期内在空间核动力源领域缔结专门的国际条约不太现实,通过各类软法为各国提供自愿遵循的规范指引并由各国根据实际需求逐渐将其纳入到其国内法律规则体系中,逐步实现空间核动力源国际规则的统一不失为较好的折衷办法。

关键词: 空间核动力源, 《关于在外层空间使用核动力源的原则》, 《外层空间核动力源应用安全框架》, 软法

Abstract:

The use of nuclear power sources in outer space is the inevitable choice to meet the needs for the exploration of deep space. Because of its inherent risk factors and the widespread influence of space activities on the Earth, how to use the nuclear power sources safely is a problem faced by the whole international community.At present, only two international instruments directly regulate the use of Nuclear Power Source in outer Space, namely the "Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space" adopted in 1992, and the "Safety Framework for Nuclear Power Sources Applications in Outer Space" established in 2009. These two instruments provide general principles and specific technical specifications as well as appropriate safety standards to be followed. However, both of them are considered as soft law, which are not legally binding and enforceable. The possibility of forming a new space law treaty on Nuclear Power Sources seems very low for the moment, the recourse to some kind of soft law, such as Principles, Framework, or Code of conduct, is an interim positive and realistic solution. It can be a good way to harmonize national laws and develop an international regime on the specific issue of NPS.

Key words: nuclear power sources, Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space, Safety Framework for Nuclear Power Sources Applications in Outer Space, soft law

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