北京航空航天大学学报(社会科学版) ›› 2015, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (6): 46-56.DOI: 10.13766/j.bhsk.1008-2204.2015.0376

• 本期特约专家稿件 • 上一篇    下一篇

信息社会背景下的信息自决权

弗里德里希·肖赫   

  1. 弗赖堡大学 法学院, 弗赖堡 79085
  • 收稿日期:2015-07-14 出版日期:2015-11-25 发布日期:2015-12-02
  • 作者简介:Friedrich Schoch(1952-),男,德国弗赖堡大学国家法和行政法教席教授,曾担任弗赖堡大学法学院院长、德国科学基金会成员以及法学组发言人、联邦总统顾问、德国国家法教授协会会长,其学术足迹几乎遍布所有公法领域,在信息和媒体法方面也颇有影响,尤其在信息公开法领域,不仅作为德国《信息自由法》主要起草专家,更著有德国该领域最全面的法律评议书.

Personal Information Right in Information Society

Friedrich Schoch   

  1. Law School, University of Freiburg, Freiburg 79085, Germany
  • Received:2015-07-14 Online:2015-11-25 Published:2015-12-02

摘要:

联邦宪法法院在1983年"人口普查案"中创制了"信息自决权",其防御法构想已经无法适应互联网时代信息无处不在的现象.传统"信息自决权"保护范围过于宽泛,侵犯条件容易满足,这既不符合现实要求,也将导致该领域陷入"法律化陷阱".改革方案提出保护信息的使用情境,这将导致基本权保护范围大幅缩减.建议"进化"而非"革命"地重新调整对该基本权的认识,其保护人格权且应当考虑个人"合理的隐私期待",应限制对侵犯的认定.在私人法律关系中,还应当谨慎运用国家保护义务教义.

关键词: 信息自决权, 信息社会, 法律化陷阱, 情境调控, 进化

Abstract:

The Federal Constitutional Court created a "Personal Information Right" in 1983 from the "census" case. However, the concept of the defense law has been unable to adapt to the internet era which features ubiquitous information. Traditional "Personal Information Right" has a broad scope of protection and violation is easily satisfied. It doesn't conform to the requirements of the reality and can lead to a "legalization trap". Protecting the use of background information will result in a substantial reduction in the scope of fundamental rights protection. We recommend "evolution" rather than "revolution" to readjust to the fundamental rights awareness, which should take into account the "reasonable expectation of privacy" by the protection of individual personality. Violation satisfaction should be limited. In private legal relationships, the doctrine of state's protection obligation should also be implemented with great care.

Key words: Personal Information Right, information society, legalization trap, protect the use of background information, evolution

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