2020, Vol. 33 No.6
Publication date: 25 November 2020
As an important up-level law, the provisions of the "Civil Code" on the protection of personal information will have a significant impact on the application of crime against the citizens' personal information. The legislative approach to the civil law on protecting personal information will have a momentous impact on the judicial application of the crime against the citizens' personal information, especially on the understanding of policies.The setting of rules for the processing of personal information will have a direct impact on the prerequisite of this crime, which is "violating the relevant provisions of the state". The scope of personal information, especially the division between private and non-private information, public and non-public information, will directly affect the definition of the object of crime and the constitutive elements about the crime against the citizens' personal information.
The interests of data security, directly related to the objects that should be protected by data security legislation, involvs three levels: personal security, public security and national security.There are many difficulties in China's data security legislation, such as the basic problems which have not been clarified, the governance consensus which still needs to be promoted, the core system supply which is insufficient, the key link supervision which is not strong, the international game response is weak, and the legislative technology needs to be improved. In the future, China's data security legislation should not only continue to strengthen the research on the basic theory of data, but also adjust the legislative thinking according to the current practical problems of data security. In terms of legislative orientation, it is suggested to be based on the function of security guarantee, avoid the generalization of data security interests, deal with the internal coordination problems of the data security law, the personal information protection law, and the cybersecurity law, deal with the problems of legislation coordination outside the security legislation system such as export control law, foreign investment law and civil code; in terms of system construction, it is suggested to coordinate the inward security and outward security, and strengthen the construction of core system; in terms of standardization focus, it is suggested to shift from data collection to data processing, and strengthen the standardization of core links; in terms of normative methods, it is suggested to adopt both main body regulation and behavior regulation, and pay attention to special subjects; in terms of legislative technology, it is suggested to pay attention to the special subjects that depends on the impact of legislation.
The new round of technological revolution, represented by the research, development and application of artificial intelligence (AI) technology, has brought complex ethical issues and governance challenges while improving people's lives. In order to address these issues and challenges, this paper analyzes the nature of the AI ethical risks from the dimensions of algorithm, data and application. The paper also surveys typical ethical risks from various case studies, and proposes a sustainable risk management approach. Based on the approach, the paper makes several policy recommendations on how to manage the ethical risk in AI.
The Great Learning (Daxue) was one chapter of the Record of the Rites (Liji). Han Yu emphasized the importance of Daxue with the aim of reviving Confucianism. Zhu Xi chose Daxue as one part of the Four Books and the status of Daxue was improved. And then Daxue became a significant classic resource of imperial examination, which has a great influence on Confucianism and Chinese culture. Daxue consists of one chapter (jing) and ten commentaries, and the core content is three principles and eight items (sangang bamu). These three principles and eight items describe the target and procedure of study. As a result, the study of Daxue should be the first step of the study of the Four Books for it confirms the study framework of study.
Zhu Xi constructed his theory system through annotating classics, particularly the Four Books. The completion of the Four Books with Collected Commentaries lasted for many years. Zhu Xi spent more than 40 years finishing the Analects and Mencius and were still revising the Great Learning until his death. Zhu Xi's explanation for the Four Books was affected by Cheng brothers' concept of the principle of heaven (tianli). The Four Books illuminated sages' values and rules. Compared with the Six Classics that contained many aspects of Chinese culture and were difficult to comprehend, the Four Books should be the beginning for scholars to learn classics.
The pension system in German started in 1880s. Until 1950s, a series of pension reforms were enacted continuously because of the change of social environment after the World War Ⅱ. Various pensions were settled for different purposes, from the purpose of political stability, to encouraging labor mobility and relieving unemployment. Until the end of the 20th century, the sustainability reforms begin to balance more and more complicated economic environment and public living standards. For the content of reforms, changes happened to form financing strategy, pension calculation methods and also ages adapted to policy. In terms of consequences after reforms, the article includes the change of retirement ages, old-age employment and public finance expense including relevant ratios. In the micro level, the article puts together different studies on public reactions towards new pension system, and different social groups reactions under the current pension system. Based on the above, this article analyzes the expected retirement ages under the influence of new pension system, and provides available references for China.
Since the 1980s, Singapore has experienced three main stages in the development of the delay retirement policy: the exploration stage of perfecting legislative guarantees, the guiding stage of soft trial re-employment, and the mature stage of simultaneous extension of the retirement age and re-employment age. Drawing on lessons from the development experience of Singapore's delayed retirement policy, the Chinese government and relevant departments should insist on a flexible and gradual approach to flexibly extend the retirement age; do a good job in the improvement of corresponding supporting measures; respect the wishes of the people, and gradually guide on the basis of full communication delay retirement.
As an essential part of the social governance system, the public psychological services system (PPSS) aims to cultivate self-esteem, self-confidence, rationality, composure, and optimism in society. The outbreak of COVID-19 aroused fear, distrust and immorality among people. Experimental PPSS districts, across China took swift actions and achieved certain successful results. However, several problems also appeared. Firstly, although the response speed was quite fast, most teams were set up temporarily instead of regularly. Secondly, social organizations played an important role in this process, but they acted all alone rather than in unity. Thirdly, there were too many kinds of psychological aids that the supply exceeded the demand. The above problems could be solved by building a bigger picture of PPSS, which contains mental health services, social mentality guidance and core values cultivation.
Social mobilization is an important way to build consensus and promote social participation. The form of social mobilization changes with the changes of social characteristics and main tasks in different historical stages. Social mobilization plays an important role in the prevention and control of COVID-19 epidemic. The key elements for the effective mobilization of this disease are: the Party's centralized and unified leadership, the value orientation of putting the safety of people's lives and health first, active publicity and public opinion guidance, close reliance on the people, and prevention and control in accordance with the law. The outbreak also highlights challenges facing current social mobilization: active social participation by social organizations is developed but immature; the demands on the authority of mobilizers have become higher; rumors are easy to spread and change the direction of social mobilization with the help of the Internet. Therefore, under the background of modernization of national governance system and governance capacity, it is necessary to promote interaction between the Party and the government in social mobilization with the people as the main body, it is also necessary to take core socialist values as the greatest common denominator for building consensus and put social mobilization under the framework of the rule of law.
The communication between experts and public in the epidemic has once again obtained attention in academic, especially the conduct of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) students have not met the expectations of the community for professionals. In STEM education, professional literacy provides students with the ability to integrate into the social context as an expert. However, it turns out to be inadequate for the relationship between ethics and professional literacy in STEM education, which leads to the contradiction between students' professional identity and social identity, as well as between the utilization of expertise and social knowledge. From the perspective of moral competence, the lack of the social value dimension in professional literacy can be reflected. STEM students will return to local society from expertise system and therefore respond the emerging and emergency affairs better in science and technology, due to the splits in community, knowledge system and identity are restored by competence intention, competence knowledge and competence skill.
COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control provides a series of vivid teaching materials for the teaching of the course of Introduction to Mao Zedong Thought and the theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics (hereinafter referred to as the course of Introduction). However, due to the large number and wide range of involved points, the integration of "epidemic prevention and control" into the teaching is faced with practical challenges. Therefore, teachers not only need to closely combine the teaching key points, difficulties and students' concerns of the course to carry out the overall planning and system integration of the teaching content, but also need to guide students to enter the deep learning by restoring the complex situation, encouraging students to read deeply and focus on discussion and other teaching methods optimization.
The collaborative development of energy and water resources is the internal requirement for the provincial economy to implement the new development concept and promote high-quality development. Based on input-output analysis and ecological network analysis, the regional correlation network is constructed. The correlation index is created to evaluate the comprehensive pressure of each department affected by energy and water nexus, and then the circularity, robustness, control and dependence of the nexus network are evaluated. The findings are as follows: energy consumption and energy-related water consumption are different among sectors, while water consumption and water-related energy consumption are similar among sectors; the upgrading of the industrial structure can help to reduce the energy consumption and water consumption of the region; the performance of water nexus network in cyclic efficiency and robustness are better than those of energy nexus network respectively; the departments which are greatly affected by nexus reflect the characteristics of high mutual demand between energy and water. Finally, some countermeasures are put forward to realize the collaborative development of energy and water from two perspectives of improving the utilization efficiency of resources and promoting the inter-departmental coordination and upgrading.
Intellectual property financing based on Internet finance developed rapidly in recent years, but faced with risks of Internet finance and intellectual property. Risks of Internet finance stem from legal hysteresis and supervision scarcity. Risks of intellectual property closely related with its intangibility and uncertainty. Therefore, it is necessary to improve legislation, standardize operation of Internet platform, and form bonus-penalty mechanism social credit so as to reduce risks of Internet finance. On the other hand, it is necessary to change unreasonable ownership rules of intellectual property and adopt appropriate measures to protect intellectual property, establish diversified warrant systems in order to dissolve risks of intellectual property.
Space traffic management is the service and management provided to ensure the safety, security and sustainable development of space activities and maintain the order of space activities. The evolution of space traffic management issues mainly presents three basic development trends: concept proposal and academic research, government intervention and promotion, and the United States taking the lead to seize opportunities. Space traffic management issues mainly involve three core issues, such as rule discourse, space development and space safety, and there are risks of international and domestic challenges. At the same time, this topic also provides a good strategic opportunity for China to promote the concept of a community with a shared future for mankind and accelerate the building of a space power. In order to promote space traffic management, firstly, we should strengthen strategic coordination and design and put forward a "China's proposals"; secondly, we should focus on building a space traffic management technical rule system; and finally continue to promote the construction of space situational awareness, spacecraft management and control systems and other national space infrastructure.
The basic principle is one of the basic elements of the law and the indispensable soul of the law. The basic principles of the aerospace law are legal principles applicable to the space legal system and embody the fundamental value of the space law. They are the concretization of the basic principles of the lawand constitute the basis and starting point of legal rules in the aerospace field. According to the main characteristics of space law, such as comprehensiveness, internationality, systemicity and development, this article believes that the basic principles of space law should include at least three basic principles: principle of compliance with international law, principle of safety, security and development, and principle of interest protection and interest balance.
Due to the popularity of the Disney cartoon film Aladdin, the image of Aladdin as an Arabian is solidly built in Chinese audience. This paper attempts to argue that this is not true in Britain at the beginning of the nineteenth century. In The Arabian Nights at that time, Aladdin's image has four features: first, Aladdin is Chinese; second, Aladdin is fortunate; third, Aladdin is funny; finally, Aladdin is repentant. On the London stage at that time, Aladdin's image has two main features: first, he is Chinese; second, he is romantic. In the adapted fairy tale of that time, Aladdin's image has two features: first, he is Chinese; second, he is repentant. It can be concluded that in the early nineteenth century Aladdin was taken as a Chinese in Britain. In other words, the story of Aladdin was regarded as a story related to China at that time. Therefore, this paper helps Chinese people know Aladdin more accurately.
As John Updike's masterpiece, the Rabbit Tetralogy are of rich artistic and humanistic value, and broadening its critical perspective is of positive significance. Using the methods of cultural criticism and ethical literary criticism, the Rabbit Tetralogy are studied to explore the changing reality of American society depicted by John Updike and the resulting twists and confusions in national life, and analyze the ethical relationship depicted in the novels and the way it is narrated. Readers have discovered that the Rabbit Tetralogy provide a window into the transition of contemporary American social values, and inspired people to think and discuss ways to solve realistic problems. Through his criticism of American reality and culture, John Updike realized the isomorphism of literature and reality, through his unique narrative style and technique, John Updike realized the interaction between narration and ethics, and established the dimension of literary narrative ethics.
The conception of intercultural communication can reflect the attitude, cognition as well as the strategies the learners used in their learning process. Therefore, understanding the conception of intercultural communication of Chinese western university students can find the students' Intercultural Communication Competence (ICC) and provide reference for the intercultural communication teaching. This paper firstly uses the questionnaire to collect data, then carries out exploratory factor analysis and confirmed factor analysis. The results show college students' conception of intercultural communication include seven factors: memorizing, testing, drilling and practicing, increasing knowledge, mother language, application and communication, and broadening views. It is also revealed that female students outperform male students in the three factors, like drilling and practicing, increasing knowledge and broadening views through independent sample T test. In addition, there is no significant correlation between college students' conception of intercultural communication learning and their major and overseas experience.
The apartment college students live in is an important place for college students to live and socialize. By surveying 3 309 college students from 52 different universities in China, this research investigates the relationship between college students' apartment and college students' adaptability. Using a quantitative method, this paper analyses the relationship between the four factors (ie. the time of going back to the apartment, hardware facilities, public space and management mode) and the adaptability of college students from the dimensions of hardware environment and management system. The results show that the relationships between the four factors and adaptability of college students are significant, while the degree of significance differs in specific dimensions of adaptation.
As an important research scope in the field of ideological and political education, college students' concept of gain and loss is the concrete embodiment of their world outlook and outlook on life in terms of interests. As the main force to promote social progress, contemporary college students bear the arduous mission entrusted by the epoch. After multi-dimensionally discussing the problems existing in the concept of gain and loss in contemporary college students, the author analyzes the reasons for the wrong concept. Moreover, this paper puts forward the countermeasures in the cultivation of college students' concept of gain and loss from perspectives of social guidance, college students themselves, school education, family education and social practices to sweep the mind obstacles, guide the dialectical treatment of gain and loss, set up the correct world outlook on life and values.