2020, Vol. 33 No.3
Publication date: 25 May 2020
Chinese future legislation should clarify the following basic problems:first, the definition of personal information should be based on the relative relationship between the personal information subject and the information controller; second, the nature of the individual's right to the personal information is a kind of interests protected by law instead of the kind of absolute rights; third, the future legislation of personal information protection should focus on the regulation of public bodies and the enterprise. The future legislation should facilitate the coordination between the public legal rues and private legal rules.
The development of new technology has posed new challenges to the traditional framework of data protection. In the context of big data, artificial intelligence, internet of things, cloud technology and so on, authorization of personal information based on user consent often falls into invalid or hinders technological progress, and meanwhile, cannot really provide data privacy protection. Besides, there are also problems with some principles of restricting data users. The reason is that the current personal information protection law adopts the individualism and static protection approach, and there is tension with data utilization under the background of new science and technology. In the future, the protection of personal information should shift from individualistic permission to risk-oriented public law control, from static protection to dynamic protection.
The personal data protection legislation is closely related to the background of the era in which it is located. The widespread use of Internet, the application of big data and the technological and industrial changes in the artificial intelligence era has made tremendous changes in the requirements for the source, purpose, storage and processing of personal data. The challenges of personal data protection are becoming increasingly severe, and traditional norms are difficult to meet current protection needs. To cope with the big changes and creatively formulate personal data protection rules for future technological, economic, and social development, China's future Personal Information Protection Law should take the following actions:It should fully respond to the development needs of emerging technologies; it should comply with the international trend of data protection, with the point shifting from collection to use, with the protection responsibility shifting from data subject to data controller; it should purposefully draw on the theoretical and practical gains and losses of cutting-edge legislation such as GDPR and CCPA. In view of biometric identification technology and automated decision-making system, while paying attention to the protection of personal privacy, it should also make full use of the industrial advantages of artificial intelligence to open the way for social and economic development.
The U.S. cybersecurity policy has evolved and developed a three-sided strategy synergy. Focusing on the protection of critical infrastructure in cyberspace, these strategies consist of cooperation between government departments and private companies, promotion of online public information sharing and coping strategies to protect the privacy and freedom of citizen information privacy. These solutions have been promoted to national strategies through a series of executive orders, administrative instructions, and federal laws. With the maturity of the U.S. network security policy, the current decentralized American legislation in this area can no longer meet the demand. The U.S. government and congress have actively promoted comprehensive cybersecurity legislation. On the other hand, China, as an important member of the international Internet economy and security system, has its own independent national interests and sovereign protection needs, which determines that China must have its own internal logical coherent Internet strategic framework and institutionalized system. Thus, the changes of the U.S. Internet strategy and legal system provide the most relevant reference for systemic thoughts on the construction of China's internet governance order, and so are worthy of absorption.
With the in-depth development of theoretical study and implementation experience, policy philosophy has possessed the possibility of the discipline construction preliminarily. Policy philosophy is a discipline which analyzes such public policy issues as the cultural basis, cognitive model, value orientation, and way of thinking from the perspective of philosophy. Through sorting out the disciplinary sources, the objects of study, disciplinary character and content system of policy philosophy can be established. Examples of the construction of policy philosophy can be discussed separately from the positive and negative aspects. According to different perspectives, the gains and losses of the historical moral model and rational model of policy philosophy can be summarized. Based on the practical policy practice of China, the discipline construction of policy philosophy should learn from the traditional policy culture, as well as the construction experience of similar disciplines in other countries.
The core of ecological policy lies in the construction of ecological civilization, while its essence is to correctly handle the relationship between man and nature. Both the anthropocentrism and the ecology-centered philosophy of ecological policy may lead to the misunderstanding of ecological policy. In the classical Chinese philosophy of "tianren heyi", which stands for "the unity of man and nature", the so-called "tian" contains three-dimensional imageries involving the nature itself, the laws of nature, to the wills of nature. Accordingly, "tianren heyi" has triple implications:The symbiosis between human and nature, the coordination of personnel rules and natural laws, the unification of human conduct and natural will, which leads to the development of the ecological policy philosophy of "tianren heyi". Overall, the ecological policy philosophy of "tianren heyi" provides full and accurate ideological materials for recalibrating the relationship between humans and nature, the Chinese-specific values and ethics for coordinating personnel rules and natural laws, and an ideal behavior model for deepening ecological environmental protection.
This paper investigated one hundred and twenty-eight government WeChat policies and found the following items:The WeChat policy documents began to appear in 2012, and had great increments in 2014. Municipal government agencies are the key actors of enacting policy documents. Most policy documents belong to the types of "notice" and "regulation", and did not give the definition of government WeChat. Most of policy documents were issued for specific account service. WeChat, government affairs, micro-blog, and management are the most frequently used policy theme words. The chief positioning of government WeChat is information release, followed by service, the latter of which becomes more and more prominent with time. The work principle of government WeChat emphasizes the responsibility and unity. Most documents do not specify the response time limit of government WeChat. From perspective of content dimension, policy documents pay more attention to content scope, content check, account presentation, human resources, content sources, account registration, legal issues, and government responses; and pay less attention to the account cancellation, content access, privacy security, performance reward, privacy security, and financial funds. The future trend of policy development includes focusing on account closure procedures and standards, filing management and inclusive development.
Communication of China's national image shows new features in the new era, and requires the clarification of fundamental directions according to the spirit of the meetings on national propaganda work in the new era. Furthermore, communication of China's national image in the new era calls for a readjustment of directions in such respects as primary content of communication, external recognition and internal formation of communication, and the target of communication effect, and so on. The first and foremost task of China's national image communication is to explain China politically, because firstly, it is the demand of the changes in the new era; and secondly it is the most difficult, due to the many subjective and objective factors. The second task is to plan the external recognition and internal formation as a whole. Specifically, the external recognition of China's national image need to observe rules and logic, while the internal formation needs a multi-ethnic perspective. The last is that the communication of national image should be oriented towards the enhancement of the country's influence, which means that factors such as soft power, purpose of the use of political resources, international morality should be taken into consideration during the process of communication.
The prosperity of government social media has brought opportunities for public policy communication in China. The case of "Garbage Sorting Policy" in Shanghai is a very good example. This study shows that, at different stages of policy process, government uses various media forms to carry out policies, maintain a rhythmic information issue and is committed to diversifying policy topics. In policy communication practices, government social media has promoted an all-media tendency, which framed themselves professionally and diversely. Buzzwords in cyberspace are actively adopted by government to interpret policy intentions. Participations and public services are invited into government social media for good policy communication. Under the tendency of mobile communication, functionalization, visualization, deep professionalization, productization, and multiple interactions will collectively facilitate policy communication via government social media.
Based on the theory of economic growth and agricultural risk management, this paper insists that agricultural insurance can have a multiplier effect on government poverty alleviation through premium subsidy; meanwhile, increase agricultural output; and then increase farmers' income. By constructing the empirical model and starting from two dimensions of agricultural production technology and risk management technology, this paper probes into the function mechanism of agricultural insurance subsidy to alleviate poverty. The study found that the elasticity of agricultural output to agricultural technology investment is 0.112 767, the elasticity of risk management thcenology investment is 0.107 823. These findings show that agricultural insurance subsidy is used for agricultural output from two angles:Agricultural technology and risk management thcenology, and thus raises the income level of farmers and produces a good amplification effect for the government's poverty alleviation effect. Therefore, in order to give full play to and improve the efficiency of agricultural insurance poverty alleviation, the government needs to further improve the agricultural insurance subsidy system and provide technical support.
Under the new normal, industrial transformation and upgrading is the only way to adapt to and lead the new normal, and the rise of industrial culture provides a new perspective for us to examine the issue of industrial transformation and upgrading. To explore the effect mechanism of industrial culture development on industrial upgrading, the method combining the empirical analysis and case analysis is adopted. The research results show that the industrial culture development has positive impacts on industrial upgrading, among which, the industrial upgrading effect in the eastern region is more significant. The ability to innovate significantly and positively regulates the relationship between industrial culture development and industrial upgrading. But this adjustment has regional differences:While the ability to innovate significantly regulates the relationship between industrial culture development and industrial upgrading in the eastern region, the positive direction is not significant in the central and western regions. Meanwhile, the formation and development of the big data industry in Guizhou also confirmed the promotion of industrial culture development to industrial upgrading.
The general aviation has been upgraded to a national strategy, and becomes one of the strategic new industries with the good development prospects in China. In order to accurately grasp the domestic and international research hotspots and evolution trends of general aviation development, the paper collects the general aviation related literature based on the Web of Science core collection database and the domestic CNKI database, and draws the mapping about the time and space of distribution, the author of distribution, keyword co-occurrence and evolution trends by using the Citespace software. Knowledge mapping vividly shows the current hotspots and evolution process in this field:The research on general aviation at home and abroad continues to rise. The international research is mainly based on the developed countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, and Germany, while China is in a catch-up situation. The domestic research hotspots show the characteristics of key and coordinated development. The evolving research hotspots display five stages:Flight activities and flight management of general aviation, low-altitude airspace management, aviation manufacturing and industrial chain, general aviation services, airport economy and general aviation industry. Low-altitude airspace management is the biggest bottleneck in the development of general aviation, which is also the key factor in the future development.
Mega-constellation, such as Low Earth Orbit(LEO) communication satellite constellations, is a hot topic of space industry unavoidably impacted by outer space laws. The space law could provide legal principal foundation, however, with many contradictory factors, such as space debris mitigation, frequency and orbit assignment, registration and regulation, economical efficiency and reliability etc. Thus, this paper proposes China to take measures to settle this situation, which may involve accelerating the domestic legislation work, deepening international corporation, strengthening innovative research and systematic solution with the characteristics of China.
Since the 1960s, the development of international rules in outer space mainly experienced the formation period, the soft law period and the game period. Although there are still some problems in these international rules of outer space, they profoundly influence future military operations. To sum up, these rules restrict the development of future military operations in four aspects:military confrontation equipment, military confrontation technology, operational space for military operations and game over the draft new outer space rules. Therefore, while flexibly applying the international rules in outer space, it is necessary to follow up and study the security environment of outer space, and accelerate the pace of legislation for outer space security; it is also necessary to actively develop international legislative cooperation in outer space, and participate in the formulation of international rules in outer space; meanwhile, it is necessary to make full use of the rules in outer space, and cultivate the ability to respond to the public opinion by using the rules in outer space, thus promoting the development of soft power in outer space and safeguarding national outer space security.
Combing all the novels of Milan Kundera, we find that traumatic narration is an important part of them. Using the traumatic narrative criticism theory, we can dig out the causes of different traumas and symptoms of the injured groups. Then, we can find out some ways for treatment. Therefore, the study will provide a new perspective for future researchers in the field.
On the basis of summarizing the related concepts and methods of big data and big data analysis, as well as the key applications of big data analysis in the field of higher education, this paper emphatically analyzes the applications and development trend of big data analysis in the quality assessment of graduate education. Taking the project of big data analysis in quality of graduate education as an example, this paper illustrates the construction of monitoring indicator system in quality of graduate education based on big data analysis, big data collection in quality monitoring of graduate education, construction of big data analysis platform, construction and application of big data analysis model, etc. The literature review shows that the application of big data in higher education research are limited, and that the research on big data analysis in the quality of graduate education are still in its infancy. The review, however, also indicates the growing significance of big data analysis to the quality assurance of postgraduate education. Therefore, this paper puts forward several key points to strengthen the quality monitoring and assessment of graduate education driven by big data. In addition, we propose to break down the barriers between different graduate education information systems to realize the correlation between data on the premise of paying attention to data security, and actively promote the degree of integration between big data and graduate education.
Based on the "Uses and Gratifications" theory, this paper proposes an analysis framework of "use and gratification" for intelligent teaching tools. Taking "Rain Classroom" intelligent teaching tools as an example, we conducted a questionnaire survey on the effect of intelligent teaching tools applied in higher education with 651 students respondent from 15 universities. The findings have shown that the intelligent teaching tool has proved to be efficient, and its operation process coincides with the "uses and gratification" theory in general, which presents a full path of medium choices "demand motivation-media use behaviors-functional satisfaction-medium impression". However, college students' impression of "rain classroom" does not have a significant moderation effect on the relationship of demand motivation and media use behaviors. In addition, we found that students use the basic functions more frequently, and rarely use the advanced functions. The interaction between teachers and students was highly responsive, and students' participation in the course was greatly improved, but the learning effect as well as the degree of self-realization was only slightly improved. Based on this conclusion, this paper offers a series of suggestions:focus on the students demand for intelligent tools to develop more appropriate function; strengthen the training on teachers and encourage them to make full use of the tools; guide the teachers to pay attention to the influence of the type and frequency of media use behaviors on the improvement of students' learning effects; adjust teaching strategies in terms of the observed current situation of students' learning.
The university online career service has become an important lever to improve the quality of graduates' employment via its cost-effectiveness and easy access features. Based on the stakeholder theory, this study conducted ten case studies on service strategy of online university career centers from China and U.S. in the QS Graduate Employability Rankings. The study shows the employment service paradigm has changed; the experiential career education and building of career communities, which enables multi-stakeholder engagement, have become the mainstream developing trend. The main strategies of the sampling universities are summarized as follows:providing differentiated services for undergraduates and postgraduates, and students from different communities; developing online networks for alumni attending to offer career counseling for students and attaching importance to participation and support of parents and faculty; providing ample online resources and professional service platform to effectively connect students with employers and focusing on cultivating students' ability to use professional social media for job-seeking; building a brand for university online employment service, enhancing its professional development, promoting the internationalization of graduate employment and utilizing the advantages of big data to offer precision service for stakeholders.
In the era of "Internet +", the comprehensive education departments of universities strive to classify students and make personalized guidance accurately. In general, BBS communities of a university, whose data is highly reliable and can be mined, have special comparative advantage, practical function and goal significance in the social interaction among students. Based on the dynamic and steady-state characteristics of BBS in universities, the individual behavior model, group behavior model, public opinion dissemination model, and building online and downlink behavior evaluation model in the "Future Garden" BBS Community of Beihang University can provide us methods to explore the feasible path of carrying out precision education with BBS in universities
The public acceptance of Internet medical services are not only the key issues concerned by academic community, but also of practical significance. According to the characteristics of Internet medical service, this study constructs a use factor model for medical service platform of public willingness by structural equation mode, which bases on the theory of trust, user integration of technology acceptance model, and information system success model. The empirical research method are used to verify the trust, perceived interactive value will have direct positive significant effect to the public. Users' satisfaction has an intermediary effect between service quality of the platform and the willingness to use. Service quality, performance expectation and effort expectation have significant impact on users' satisfaction. Finally, the study proposes proposes that promoting public trust of medical services on the internet through better regulation of internet security and and platform, improving the efficiency of internet medical services and the interactions with users, conducting online health education to improve the service quality of medical platform could enhance the public wiliness to use.