2008, Vol. 21 No.1
Publication date: 25 March 2008
The problem of how to coordinate a twolevel supply chain with contracts has been discussed in most literature, but supply chain is often consisted of more than two separate entities in fact. This paper aims to study coordination in a threelevel supply chain which consists of a manufacturer, a wholesaler anda retailer under stochastic demand. The wholesaler transacts with the retailer by providing a buy back contract and the manufacturer transacts with the wholesa ler by a profitsharing contract. In this case the paper designs a coordination mechanism and validates that the different divisions of channel profit can be realized by tuning contract parameters. Finally, the validity of the contract mechanism is illustrated by a numerical example.
Technical risk is the very important risk for weapon system developmen t (WSD), and it always exists in the process of WSD. Technical risk is the chief factor that brings cost risk, schedule risk and performance risk. Controlling a nd managing technical risk in the process of WSD are very important and necessar y. On the basis of systematically reviewing the main literature for technical ri sk of WSD, the research scopes of the technical risk management are analyzed and summarized in this paper, which include the concept and the meaning of technica l risk, the management process of technical risk, as well as the approaches to t echnical risk identification and assessment. Further research directions of the approaches to technical risk identification and the quantitative appraisement mo dels for technical risk are also pointed out.
Based on the structural equation model, a synthesis evaluation method is discussed. The relation between every latent variable and its corresponding o bserved variables is investigated and the relation between every latent variable and the multivariable evaluation index is analyzed with the proposed method. Therefore, the multivariable evaluation index which represents the latent variable s and observed variables is computed with this method. The urbanization development level model of Chinese cities adopted two variable sets which reflect economic level and living level, and structural equation model is applied for establishing city synthesis evaluation index. The result showed consistence with economi c geography.
After investigating the change of salary of top manager team from M&A of Chinese Listed Corporations, the authors found that the salary of top manager team increases significantly while the performance of the firms is not improved significantly. We further found that there is a significantly positive relation ship between the change of salary and the scale of M&A while there isn't a signi ficant relationship between the change of salary and performance of M&A.
The paper gives some theoretical analysis and empirical research on co st preferences of small enterprise debt financing from the angle of information and transaction cost. It finds that it is the transaction cost,not the direct a ccrual expenditure cost,that is the most important factor and determines the fi nancing preference decision-making of small enterprises. From the marketable se lection behaviors of small enterprises, the paper concludes that it has weaker a nd weaker financing preference series as follows: informal finance, regional for mal finance and national formal finance.
This paper analyses the relationship between S&T output and S&T input of Guangxi based on the gray relevance superior method. The results indicate that the leading factor influencing S&T output is the S&T fund, and the government fund is the most important factor. Regarding the capacity of technical output, p roduct innovation is the greatest in comparison with the marketing of the techni cal achievement and the direct output (patent).
In economics, ‘Economic man’ and ‘Moral man’ are two completely different pa radigms in the assumption of human nature. This paper retrospects various humani ty assumptions in the history of economy. It points out that under specific circ umstances of the construction of a harmonious society, people really should make a return journey from ‘Economic man’ to ‘Moral man’ as soon as possible, so as to realize the fairness and justice of the society, and the free and overall development of the people.
The Fiscal Illusion Hypothesis is one of the theories explaining the increase of government size under the Public Choice Theory. Based on the empiric al equation of Fiscal Illusion Hypothesis, the “Fiscal Illusion” was separated into “Deficit Illusion” and “Expectation Illusion”. Using the annual data o f China from 1978 to 2004, the relationship between the “Fiscal Illusion” and the increase of government size was demonstrated with the Chow Turning Point tes t, integration analysis and vector error correction model. It was found that the “Fiscal Illusion” was one reason of the increase of China's government size. The existence of the “Deficit Illusion” was not confirmed remarkably, but the “Expectation Illusion” has a positive effect on the increase of government siz e.
In the thesis the author selected the public participation in the "Nujiang" da m decision as a case to carry on the research of Chinese citizens'politi cal participation. On this basis, the author described the process and analyzed its characteristic, expecting to use it as some reference for the Public Environ mental Participation of China. According to the research, the political particip ation in the "Nujiang" dam decision is a comprehensive public participation ne tw ork whose key link is the environmental NGOs. In this participation network, the environmental NGOs play an important role as a link with all the participation bodies. Urban intellectual citizens, the middle social stratum, such as environ mental experts and media workers, are the core of political participation bodies , and they lead and promote the environmental protection. The motive force of pu blic environmental participation is mainly environmental protection. The motive of the environmental NGOs for the environment participation is also featured wit h "the environmental protection faith and political reasonableness".
Price is the most active factor in economy, and the price of ticket is a barometer reflecting the conditions of the whole movie market. Since the 1990 's, the price of ticket in China's movie market has increased almost in geometri c series, but the total volume of the market has decreased continuously. The Chi nese movie market has not been a commodity market in the whole sense, so it is a special one. The factors affecting this include improper system of film managem ent, unhealthy environment of the market and the unfair income distribution that affects the development of the Chinese movie market. It's this special characte r through affecting the curve of demand and supply that plays a role in the form ing of the ticket price in the Chinese movie market.
Pay on fee is a widely used way of settlement in the medical security system of China. This paper analyzes the objectives and action choices under dif ferent reimbursement patterns taken by hospitals, patients and medical security organizations. Further analysis shows that different reimbursement patterns take n by the medical security organizations will lead to different interrelationship s, different satisfied degrees and utilization levels of medical resources. Lack of business insurance organizations and management experience and information a ccumulation, the settlement way of pay on fee in China has to be used for a long time. The key to utilize medical resources more properly is to modify object fu nctions and constraint conditions of hospitals.
The 1972 Liability Convention is an example of the interaction of inte rnational policy, international relations and economy. It helps define liability for damages caused by space objects. However, with more and more space activiti es taking place on a daily basis, along with the trend of commercialization, sev ere challenges have set on the continual application of the Convention. Conseque ntly, a new round of serious review of the Convention is indispensable after mor e than 30 years of its existence. The Convention with possible revision would of fer a clear guideline for decision-makers to decide cases in a rational way bes t suited to the development of space operations.
Warsaw Convention System, aiming to unify international aviation trans portation rules, has undergone many challenges since its inception. Throughout t his system, there have been three sets of contradictions: carriers and clients; industrial countries and developing countries; and common law system and civil l aw system. These contradictions have been reflected not only in the draft proces s of Warsaw Convention, but in the compromises within the specific provisions of this Convention. In the era of Air Strategic Alliance and the development of ne w technologies, Warsaw Convention System will be confronted with new challenges and innovations.
It is necessary to take into account the issue of harmonization between aviation law and outer space law because of the relevance between them. The harmonizatio n should focus on the following fields, i.e., delimitation of outer space, inter national liability for damage caused by space objects, the management system of sub-orbit spacecraft relating to space tourism, the prevention and co ntrol of space pollution etc. The harmonization at the domestic law and internat ional law levels are the two main methods of harmonization.
In most cases, justifiable defense is regarded as one kind of right pr acticed against active illegal infringement. However, there are also different a rguments among scholars as to whether the justifiable defense can be carried out on the basis of the negative illegal infringement. By probing into the problem of whether we can defend ourselves against negative illegal infringement, this p aper points out five essential components to practice justifiable defense.
Article 87 and Article 88 of CMI are the basic rules of carrier's lien on cargo. The law empowers the carrier to lien the cargo and it also stipulates the procedure. But in practice, Articles 87 and 88 in CMI have given rise to ma ny problems. This paper studies the Articles 87 and 88 of CMI, analyses the cond itions under which the carrier liens the cargo, and gives solutions to the probl ems arisen under the law, moreover, the article also gives some suggestions abou t the amendment of Articles 87 and 88 of CMI.
Li Shangyin's tragic life experience has created his tragic conscious ness, which, as reflected in his poems, becomes a kind of tragic aesthetics sty le. As far as the poetic style is concerned, Li Shangyin's poems are "exquisit e", but there is also an aspect of "sublimity" in his aesthetic thought. As far as the thought and connotation are concerned, Li Shangyin's poems have a se nse of distinct purpose, and the pursuit of "beauty" and the pursuit of "go od" are unified in his aesthetics thought.
According to the theories of contemporary cognitive linguistics and w ith the polysemous words in the modern Chinese language as a research object, th e paper studies the variation of the meanings of words. The variation of the mea nings of words in the language variation can be divided into the similarity relation and relevance relation, which are created by metaphor and metonymy.
Cognitive linguists believe that the various senses of a polysemous wo rd are not arbitrarily related but interrelated. They stress the close link betw een human body and mind, and contribute the meaning extension to people's embodi ed experience in the world. This paper takes the Chinese posture verb "Li" (st an d) as a case, and first explores into the motivation effect of image schema by c onducting a quantitative study, suggesting that meaning extension is based on em bodied experiences. Based on this, the paper compares the extension patterns of "Li" and "Stand" and finds out image schemas have cultural differenceS, whic h partly results in the difference in the extension direction of certain words i n different languages.
The article analyzes the current mainstream organization styles of sci entific research in academy. Associated with the concrete problems encountered i n large scale project management, the author introduces the innovated project ma nager system and articulates in great detail how the project manager system work s.