2010, Vol. 23 No.2
Publication date: 25 March 2010
Public Choice Theory was born amidst fierce arguement and great difficulty. It uses the method of economics to analyse the problem of politics. The most contended parts of Public Choice Theory, such as electorate (voter) research, analyse for political personages and government officials.They presume that people are selfish when they do anything, and then they study political personages and government officials- mutual actions in the background of democracy system, and so on. This paper is presented and computed with the numbers of the origination and development of Public Choice Theory; the innovation of Public Choice Theory; the focus of argument of Public Choice Theory; and the New Evolution of Public Choice Theory.
The rural floating population has been an important lens of "agriculture villages and farmers- problems". This article aims to search for the historical and present causes through the investigation of the case, discovering the floating mode and what it changes in villages. Moreover, this article argues that we must improve the efficiency of the floating of the rural population, ande must have institutional innovation so as to break the traditional structure of interest and realize the satisfying rural floating state.
The catering expense problem is often seen as spending government mone y for personal entertainment, and together with the vehicle cost and touring fee s, they are all parts of the domestic governmental running cost. Among those cos t the catering expense takes up a great portion and is increasing fast, therefor e, the whole society focuses on its reform. In this article, we design a formula to solve the problem brought up by the catering expense, which may be a good wa y to cut down the governmental running cost radically. In addition, the formula is based on the theories of economics, statistics and public management. Of cour se, the quantitive and comparative analyses are indispensable during the formula ry design.
The administrative accountability through omni-directional, multi-level surveillance and improvement of government management has promoted the construction of a responsible administration and the remoulding of government-s accountability. In our country, there is misunderstandiing of the administration-s activities among citizens; there is also misplacement of the roles of "the public servant"and the general public; and the administrative accountability safeguard mechanism is weak. Therefore, in order to contain the empty administravite responsibility behavior, it is necessary to set up a correct concept of the government-s accountability, to clarify the role of the government, and to construct the administrative accountability mechanism.
The Chinese Government has attached great importance to emergency management. Based on its scientific analysis of the public security situation and conscientious summary of the lessons and experience, the government has established an emergency management system with "one plan and three systems" as its core contents, as well as an emergency mechanism featuring "unified leadership, comprehensive coordination, categorized management, divided responsibility and localized management", which have played an important role in effectively addressing all kinds of emergencies and building a harmonious socialist society.
The study of China air transport law has made considerable achievements in the past thirty years (from 1979 to 2009), and various works and periodical theses and academic degree theses in this field have been published. But, the study of Chinese domestic civil aviation carrier responsibility is still not enough, carrier, research content and research method need to blaze a new trail, the quantity and quality of the achievements in scientific research need to be further promoted, thus, the study of air transport law is a hard and long term task.
Finance leasing is one of the most common methods for Chinese airlines to acquire aircraft. In this article, the contractual rights and obligations of finance lease are analyzed from the case of East Star Air. Airlines, especially the small and medium sized airlines are inclined to use the method of finance lease to acquire aircraft because of the unique functions and nature of the finance lease. However, this kind of transaction also puts airlines in the situation of multiple risks. For the contract can't be cancelled during the long contract period, so the breach of contract sometimes is fatal to airlines.
Existing international space law doesn-t directly provide the status of space tourists and the international responsibility in space tourism. According to the regulations on the interpretation of treaty and the conflicts of treaty in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, space tourists may be the objects of space rescue system. International responsibility arising from space tourism includes international liability for damage by the organizer of space tourism to space tourists and international liability for damage by the organizer to other states and the international liability for damage to the space tourists. The legal system on international liability should be perfected and developed.
The future battlefield will be in space, "Space Military Forces" will also be a decisive military power in the 21st century. In 2007, an ASATs test of China has been criticized in the international arena, but through the analysis of the Article IV of the "Outer Space Treaty," as well as the U.S. military development in outer space. This article aims to demonstrate that developing ASATs did not breach outer space law from the perspective of international law and China has a legitimate need to have done so.
The moon is priceless to humanity. Manned lunar landing is also the d ream of the various space powers. By describing the moon-s resources, its import ant role and its availability, the paper elaborates the lunar programs of variou s countries, and tries to clarify the legal issues in mankind-s lunar landing , and scientific challenges. The paper looks forward to constructive contributions to development and utilization of lunar activity in our country.
International comparison of industry TFP level is an important part of productivity-s international comparison and plays an important role in industry international competitiveness research. This paper respectively derives the model measuring TFP level gap from the bilateral translog production function and from bilateral translog price function. Then the paper reports 33 industries- TFP gap between China and Japan for the 1995 benchmark year by using the latter model. The finding is that only 7 industries- TFP in China are bigger than the ones in Japan in 1995, which reflects price competitive advantage to Japan.
Sourcing is an important part of operation strategies in SCM, and it influences production and sale. Nowadays, Chinese Manufacturers have joined in the GSM. This paper discusses the sourcing strategies of Chinese manufacturers in GSC. Different from the min cost studies, we design a multi sourcing strategies for the price, the cost, the suppliers and the sustainable, which we call the 4k principle. And we design the cause and effect diagram, by using systems dynamics to simulate. The result shows the new operation strategy can maintain the income of manufacturers.
The theory of generalized fictitious?economy, which is "people oriented", has put forward a new point of view that wealth is based on life value. Based on the view of generalized fictitious?economy and life value, this article refreshes the key economic conceptions, such as "wealth" and "value". Life means existence itself, and life is the origin of comprehending economic phenomena, and the proposition of fictitious value hails from the objectification of life that accords with the unity of "essence, phenomena and process" and "substance, appearance and utility". The appearance of generalized fictitious?economy isn-t mankind-s alienation, but denotes a new stage of man-s all-sided progress. It must be built up in generalized fictitious?economy age that is the new idea of production and consumption. We should alter the view of "life after production", put wealth creation and life process together, and realize a harmonious economic increase and man-s all-sided progress.
The global integration trend is becoming more and more obvious. The urban circle effect is the direction of townships development. The paper studies townships development under the industrial concentration in Xi-an,analyzes their mutual relations and roles. Strategic measures are proposed in the end. Factually, townships development has become important actions of developing regional economy, narrowing the urban-rural gap, and building the new socialist countryside.
This article focuses on the innovative culture of enterprises in the high-tech parks of China. It defines "enterprise culture" from the perspective of sociology, gives the circumscription of the "innovative culture of enterprises" on the level of the behavior of the staff, and discusses its constructing necessity. The paper analyses the constructing actuality and major problems of the innovative culture of enterprises in the high-tech parks of China, and elicited constructing content and principles in this regards. Finally, the paper concludes several pieces of suggestion about the constructing of the innovative culture of enterprises in the high-tech parks of China, including inheriting excellent eastern culture and absorbing the modern western culture, finding the vision of the enterprise and the orientation of strategic goal, setting up outstanding institutional culture of innovation, helping leaders as well as the staff form a view of innovative value, persisting in the humanistic idea of management, raising technology innovation to the core of the whole innovation, cultivating team innovation and cultural alliance, and building up learning enterprises.
A proper performance evaluation relies on the construction of a scientific, reas onable, and feasible indices system. The balanced score card(BSC) works as good basis for the strategy of the a commercial bank. It is a series of financial eva luation indices and non-financial evaluation system which provides prompt, over all, and objective support for management to understand the operation situation. The AHP, a hierarchy weighted decision method, is used for complicated, over-r uled and unquantified problems. It will relate the objective evaluation with a decision maker-s subjective judgment and reasoning, quantify the reasonin g of the decision maker, and avoid logic mistakes the decision maker might make when dealing with complicated, or multiple projects. Using AHP with the basis of the evaluation indices of the BSC will form a whole construction of the evaluat ion system which will reflect the basic situation of the commercial bank clearly .
The traditional approaches could not fully rank all the DMUs in interval DEA because the efficient DMUs have the same efficiency scores. In order to solve this problem, we combined the discriminant analysis of ratios (DR) method with interval DEA so as to establish a new approach: the interval DR/DEA method. The efficiency scores provided by this method is different from one DMU to another, therefore they can be used to fully rank all the DMUs in interval DEA. This method is demonstrated through an example in the end.
Based on the semantic dimension of Nida-s classical definition of translation, this paper discusses the role of various semantic categories in translation, which is essentially a process of meaning selection. The proposed selection mechanisms attempt to capture the process moving from static language meaning at the word and syntactic levels to dynamic speech meaning at pragmatic and rhetorical levels in conventional translation. As languages differ in terms of conceptual scopes, syntactic structures, discourse patterns and cultural traditions, it is difficult to achieve full equivalence in translation. Therefore, approximation should be the practical translation criterion to follow.
Taking "Tea Instrument" of "Tea Classic" as the research text, this paper aims at bridging the split level between the high-context culture and the low one in classics translation. It is hoped that the originally hidden information could thus be properly revealed and transferred in the English version through annotation, so that Chinese classics could be better understood and appreciated in the whole world.
The present paper studies through experiments the effects of double- glossing, single-glossing, and no-glossing on incidental acquisition and maintenance of new words while reading an English article. The results show that: 1) double-glossing conduces most to incidental vocabulary acquisition, single-glossing plays a significant role, too; 2) double-glossing conduces more than no-glossing to the maintenance of new words, but as for the comparison between double-glossing and single-glossing, single-glossing and no-glossing, the former has no significant advantage.
Genre analysis is a key technique for studying article abstracts. In terms of genre analysis theory for the corpus of 50 English abstracts and 50 Chinese ones of aerospace articles, this paper conducts a contrast study of respective moves of their macro-structures. This paper also studies language features of English abstracts and discusses the differences within English versions of Chinese abstracts. The results illustrate the five-move abstract which contains background, purpose, method, result and conclusion, and demonstrate the language features of English abstracts and the differences between Chinese academic culture and western academic culture, which give insights into the building of our present academic culture.
With the interpenetration of pragmatic theory in bilingual lexicography, the pragmatic information in bilingual dictionary has become a focus in recent years. This paper analyzes the pragmatic information in THE NEW OXFORD ENGLISH-CHINESE DICTIONARY which was published in January of 2007, and puts forward some methods to express the pragmatic information in bilingual dictionary.
The idea of strengthening a country through higher education has been practiced in Europe and the U.S. for more than 200 years, making many countries grow prosperous. In 21st century, there will new huge waves of country strengthening by higher education among the developing countries. 30 years of reform and development have laid a solid foundation for the implementation of China to build stronger national higher education and to promote China-s power through higher education. In this paper, the main purpose is to give you an overview about the concept of strengthening a country through higher education, the development characteristics and how it is practiced in China,thus providing reference for our country-s strategic planning.
Referral is one of the most important measures to timely resolve the psychological crisis of college students. According to the situation of psychological crisis intervention, this thesis analyzes the importance of referral in the intervention, points out the problems which should be paid attention to in referral, such as how to seize the opportunity, how to make sure the object, how to adhere to the principles, how to know the procedures well and how to use skills. And then a case is given to explain how to operate this referral mechanism effectively.
Referral is one of the most important measures to timely resolve the psychological crisis of university students. According to the situation of psychological crisis intervention, this thesis analyzes the importance of referral in the intervention, points out the problems which should be paid attention to in referral, such as how to seize the opportunity, how to make sure the object, how to adhere to the principles, how to know the procedures well and how to use skills. And then a case is given to explain how to operate this referral mechanism effectively.
Based on Input and Output Theory, this paper analyses and discusses the procedures and results of a project on the aid of multimedia in College English Teaching in listening and speaking in Huazhong Agricultural University, whose experimental results show that the multimedium-based teaching has remarkably bettered the students- ability of speaking, and their way of studying but moderately improved the students- listening comprehension.
Robotics is an integrated course that combines multi-disciplines and technology development. According to the characteristics of the course and the valuable teaching experiences of other universities, the paper analyzes the existing problems of the lesson on teaching contents, teaching methods and evaluation methods and some reformative schemes were proposed. Some of the reformative schemes have been put into practice and obtained good teaching results.