2010, Vol. 23 No.5
Publication date: 20 October 2010
Based on the analysis of the theory and practice of Holistic Government, this paper classifies knowledge collaboration patterns into three patterns: aim at information interflow, aim at the improvement of service process, and aim at social problems solving and policy development. It argues that there are several problems in knowledge collaboration, such as repeat information collecting, insufficient information sharing, poor facilitation of best practice on public service improvement, not enough knowledge digging in social problem solving, and deficient knowledge communication in policy making, thus it deems that the efficiency of information collection should be ameliorated and knowledge sharing and knowledge applying should be improved.
In liberalism context, the analysis on the feasibility which is about paternalistic interference behavior of the government resorts to the genuineness of individual will, and as the most significant express approach of individual will, consent theory has become the key point in the dabate of paternalistics and anti-paternalistics. However, because of the limitations of consent, there has been some inevitable plight during justifying the paternalistic behavior of the government by the individual will.
In a risk society, the foundational effect of risk communication for emergency management is of increasing significance. In this paper, the authors make a detailed analysis of deficiencies in risk communication for emergency management. To overcome these deficiencies, the authors advocate possible solutions: to strengthen the government’s responsibility for public information disclosure, to establish the government-led information allocation system timely, to take risk communication in daily work in government management, to perfect the government administration accountability system, to clarify media’s roles in risk communication, to improve the effect of risk communication, to promote the ability of emergency management, and to safeguard the right to know and to express.
Diversification of public crisis governance subject refers to the dynamic change process from a single government to diversity subject including the government, non-governmental organizations, corporate, the media and citizens. Diversification of public crisis governance subject depends on various subjects of public crisis governance working together to commit to prevent and eliminate public crisis. To achieve this process, we must strengthen the sense of participation and collaborative governance; enhance the ability to participate in and collaborative governance of all subjects, and perfect the external mechanism of diversification of public crisis governance subject.
Liabilities for damages caused by space debris should be classified on account of concrete situations and applicable laws, when dealing with legal liability issues in case of damages. There are three types of liability, i.e., liability for damages on international law, liability for damages on domestic law, and liability on both international and domestic laws. The correct classification may have important influence on the determination of the legal liability.
Intergovernmental Agreement of the International Space Station established the legal framework for ISS, the largest space cooperation in the human history. The law of ISS complies with the principles and provisions of the existing five UN outer space treaties. It also developed the outer space law by the cross-waiver of liabilities, the criminal jurisdiction provision and the protection of intellectual property rights arising in/on the ISS. The ISS legal framework can be taken as a model for the law of international space cooperation. It also provides basic rules for commercial use of the outer space. It may be used as reference for China's lawmaking on space activities.
The systematicity and progressiveness of Japan-s aviation law system is well worth learning. Since China-s future unified Aviation Law aims to be a basic law which is compatible with both public and private aviation laws, and regulates various kinds of relations within the process of aircraft manufacturing, application, exchange and scrapping, it requires an aircraft-oriented legislative style focusing on protection for aircraft-s static and dynamic security. Therefore it should primarily serve the purpose of "protecting the safety of aircrafts" rather than "safeguarding the national airspace sovereignty."
It is Article 71 in Chinese Tort law that imposes strict liability on the operator of an aircraft. The operator takes strict liability for ground damage and the passenger-s damage. The plaintiff must prove the following: the realized risk of aircraft, damage to property and personal injury, and the causation between both. It is the operator who is liable for the damage.And the liability of the operator can only be avoided by proof of the intent of the victim and force majeure in particular cases. There is caps limiting of the amount of damages when the operator is liable.
The gaps left by the phasing out of state-owned commercial banks and the congenital imbalance of distribution of the rural financial resources have bred proliferation of usury in recent years. In this paper, we find that there is positive significance in increasing social benefits by the redefinition of usury concept and Reasoning of Mat-Theory based on social benefits. At the same time, by analyzing causes of failure of the operation of formal financial institutions in the information asymmetry and contract enforcement high costs in rural areas, usury organizations with some strength and perfect organization system can set up a township financial model to fill in the rural financial gaps in the distribution of resources.
Upon a brief introduction of the Project Management Maturity Model (PMMM), this article introduces the latest developments of PMMM in fields like electronic commerce , quality safety, aviation and aerospace, as well as PMMM for Chinese Shenzhou Airship and analysis on ERP implementation capability maturity; and makes an analysis or expectation of its improvement and developing trend.
As a measure of decision maker-s perception of risks, the expected utility-entropy measure of risks is expressed as the linear weighted sum of expected utility of risky action and entropy of the state, where expected utility-entropy tradeoff coefficient is the important constant parameter. However, an empirical study in prospect theory shows that the decision maker-s risk attitude is closely related to his wealth level. The paper analyzes the impact of some kinds of decision makers- wealth level to their risk attitude. Then an expression has been established between expected utility-entropy tradeoff coefficient and decision maker-s wealth level via Arrow-Pratt risk aversion to this certain kind of decision makers. On the basis of this expression, several kinds of decision maker-s behaviors can be explained reasonably.
The global economic crisis aroused by the U.S. sub-loan crisis has had enormous influence on world economic development. Chinese economy has also been seriously affected, and economic growth in 2008 fell substantially. China has adopted a 4 trillion RMB investment plan and the revitalization plan of ten industries to deal with the economic crisis and stimulate economic growth. In the light of China-s economic structure and industrialization stage, the 4 trillion RMB investment plan and the revitalization plan of ten industries will have positive impact on China-s economic development. However, in the long run, we must change the investment-led and second-industry-led economic development model, expand domestic demand, and promote the optimization and upgrading of industrial structure.
This paper applies the Gram-Schmidt process into the logistical regression model and proposes the Schmidt-logistical regression method, which chooses the most explainable information from the original independent variable set, omits useless or redundant information, and transforms the selected independent variables into orthogonal ones. In this way, this method can not only realize variable selection in logistic regression, but also obtains a clear-structured model, which can be easily explained. This method is applied in the analysis of style investing, effectively performing variables selection and judging growth/value property of stocks.
First, This paper clarifies the definition of customer satisfaction and introduces PLS path model, then analyzes indexs of customer satisfaction of multinational retail enterprises.Then PLS path method will be applied in evaluating the customer satisfaction relativity. Finally the data will be processed with W entreprise as an example . Moreover this paper will give recommendations to Chinesse retail enterprises.
Selecting CCER high-frequency trading data of Shanghai Security Trading Market from 2003.7.1 to 2003.12.31 and adopting VAR model, the paper researches the representative variable of the probability of informed trading, The results show: the probability of informed trading is about 0.172713; the more asymmetric information is, the larger the spread is; the probability of informed trading is the well-known U-shape; it is the biggest before the announcement.
This research is based on relevant theories of waiting. We use interviews and the questionnaire survey method, try to define the "degree of customers- patient waiting", and explain the relevant mechanism. "Customers- patient waiting degree" refers to the moment when customers lose patience during the process of waiting because of subjective and objective reasons for the accumulation of constant negative emotions. The controllability of the waiting time and negative emotions were significantly positive and negative correlations, and the correlation between the negative emotions and customers- patient waiting degree was negatively correlated. Some suggestions are given on improving the banking sector.
This paper takes the subtitle translation of the film HERO as an example to discuss the translator subjectivity from the perspective of the relevance theory, which views translation as an act of ostensive-inferential intralingual or interlingual interpretation of a source text related to inference by means of brain mechanism. Translator, as the mediator between the original writer and the translated text readers, shall infer the original writer-s communicative intention, the readers- cognitive context and reading expectation, choose appropriate translation strategies, fully exert his subjective initiative, and promote a successful communication between the original writer and the translated text readers.
The article focuses on, with the samples from the eight films, the examination and description of the typical strategy, reduction, employed in subtitling Chinese feature films for English-speaking audience, with the application of Sperber and Wilson’s relevance theory (1986) in the discussion of what should be included and what should be omitted. It is concluded that decisions as to which pieces of information are to omit or to include should depend on the relative contribution of these pieces of information to the comprehension and appreciation of the target film as a whole.
Starting with the complicity between classic works and imperialistic ideology as pointed out by Said, the thesis refutes his view about the famous "silence" in Mansfield Park. The silence is open to another understanding: it is not caused by the characters- embarrassment when Fanny puts forward the issue of slavery, nor is it a forbidden topic, thus the attitude of Austen towards slavery is not that of taciturn agreement. She does not remain silent about the issue: she expresses her ameliorationist views.
In Alien consumption, consumer from the means to satisfy men’s requirements became the appetency. Consequently, men have no freedom in consumption and can’t receive happiness; the overall development of men can’t be raised in the consumer society at all. In JENNIE GERHARD, the possession of the items is equivalent to happiness, men lose themselves in excessive adore and highly depend on money, exposes the viciousness of the capitalist social system and the corruption of American lifestyle, advocates harmonious consumption which combined matter consumption and spirit consumption will let people enjoy true happiness undoubtedly.
Hawthorne’s novel The House of the Seven Gables demonstrates the social evil of pillage in early American history with the artistic measures of the black gothic romance, and reveals the emerging new concept of innovating demands and feminism that was still controversial and the severe social problems of slavery and poverty in the nineteenth-century American society.
As the doctrine of Christianity, the traditional interpretation of Holy Bible has influenced human-s basic attitudes and actions towards nature, and has become the important excuse of ethics and value for human civilization-s plundering nature. In the times of ecological crisis, the dialectically ecological reinterpretation of Holy Bible, rather than the anthropocentric approach, will contribute much to the reconstruction of the harmonious relationship between human and nature.
Civil Aviation Legal English differs from languages of other styles with its own characteristics. Application of corpus to the study of the language features, including word segmentation, vocabulary and syntax, will make the translators comprehend the text better and avoid ambiguity. As a result, the translation of the legal documents of civil aviation will be standardized.
The culture of science and technology is the nutrition to the creation of national science and technology. Apart from directly contributing technological achievements and human resources, universities also have the function of optimizing the local technological culture, which is necessary to enhance the country-s softpower and to maintain the development of national innovation. This point should not be neglected. This paper discusses briefly the mechanism for optimizing local technology culture of higher education.
Dialogue is the true essence of teacher-student relationship in higher educational institutions; anti-dialogue deviates from the ultimate value of education. At present, the teacher-student relationship in higher educational institutions of China is characterized by an anti-dialogue relationship to some degree. Based on this analysis of the essence of dialogue teacher-student relationship, the representation of anti-dialogue teacher-student relationship and its reasons, this article presents several suggestions to building the dialogue teacher-student relationship in Chinese higher educational institutions.
The independent innovations of defense science and technology are the cores of the development of the defence industry. Seven CSTIND universities play an important role in the national defense research, application of technical exploration to defense use and technicians- cultivations. In this paper, we build a DEA model to calculate relative efficiencies of seven CSTIND universities, use the DEA method to calculate the units for non-DEA efficient universities to reach the DEA effective and prompt the ways for the universities to improve their innovation efficiencies in national defense science and technology.
The procedure and aim of the course of ‘the morality cultivation and basic law- is to improve the life value and raise the spirit. Therefore, it-s not only the application of the scientific theory in its traditional sense, but also the shape of morality and view of law. The teachers should be a good guider on guiding the students- self-consiousness. Based on the above argument, the authers put forward some food for thought on improving the course teaching methods and doing some adjustment on the teaching contents.
The goal of this study is to shed light on whether the speech act of "advice" in English textbooks used by Chinese learners is represented relatively well in respect to English native speakers- (ENS) intuition. We discover that in distribution of response types, there is a significant numerical difference between the two samples; that our textbook speakers deflect the advice in a very different way from the ENS; and that while the mechanisms of "mutually reinforcing exchanges" and "change of topic" to exit advice are frequently discerned in the ENS, they occur much less frequently in textbook dialogues. In addition, the textbooks contain no/little (meta)pragmatic information. Meanwhile, causes of these occurrences are explored and suggestions are provided to improve authenticity of textbook materials.