2010, Vol. 23 No.6
Publication date: 20 December 2010
From the angle of Law and Economics, government regulation is a substitute or complement to law. Theories of substitute or complement of regulation to law consist of efficient theory of direct government versus law, theory of regulation and law to control social disorder and theory of incomplete law and government regulation. From the standpoint of restraining market failure and maintaining social order and justice, these theories indicate that government and law are all methods of social control. Once law can not cope with market failure and social disorder, regulation and regulatory body come into play. Evidently, this kind of theory of regulation gives a hint of wholly understanding regulation, which is an important revelation of effect of regulation. This can make us know limitation of legal system, rethink positive effect of regulation and consider direction and limit of reform of regulation.
The "three in an organic whole" governance model in Rui’an Rural Association (Rui’an Rural Cooperation Association) is an icebreaking attempt for constructing Chinese new rural communities. The remarkable progress in the last two years makes peoples see the feasibility, meanwhile, some embarrassments have also occurred during the process of consolidating and developing the "three in an organic whole" governance model. A study on the challenges that the development of the Rui’an model will be likely faced with, and the feasible promotion of the model to other parts of rural China will be helpful to governments and rural associations in their self-positioning in constructing new rural communities.
It is inevitable to experience public crisises, especially under urbanization, informatization, and globalization. The accountability in the management of public crisis punishes the officials who have made a breach of duty, and prevent similar public crisis. In order to reinforce the accountability, it is important to standardize the power of the subjects, duty of those held accountable, the specifications and the process of accountability.
The international financial crisis is the extreme form of financial uncertainty’s concentrated release. After deeply analyzing the tax risk in the context of international financial crisis by applying the theory of risk society, the authors think that China faces such a lot of tax risks as tax revenue, tax efficiency, tax distribution, foreign-related tax, and so on. Basing on this, the authors propose that the inevitable choices to deal with tax risks are structural tax cut, timely adjustment to export tax rebate policy and improving tax system.
How to apply the law in tort arising from the International Space Station (ISS) activities is a rather complicated issue. As far as the European Partner countries are concerned, the existing framework of International Public Law (IPL) cannot provide all the answers. ROMEII, as rules of Private International Law (PIL), begins to play a more important role to deal with the applicable law of tort. In conclusion, it is an appropriate way to apply both IPL and PIL to adjust the commercial utilization of ISS.
Outer space minning will become most atractive to manking, especially to major nations with space-going capability, including China. Current outer space law doesn’t deny outer space property rights, which provides basic legal foundation for outer space mining. However, the common heritage principle seems to worry the potential outer space mining investors. To establish a friendly legal environment for outer space mining, an outer space mining regime founded on explict property rights is needed.
As the Federal law enforcement officer, Federal air marshal had searched and arrested without a warrant for several times. And, we can analyze the constitutionality of these measures from three aspects. First, significant aviation safety is the basic interests of warrant exception because an air marshal mainly deals with serious hijack or terrorists attacks. Second, the special circumstance of cabin and critical condition satisfies the condition of "emergency exception" of warrant. Third, even meeting the condition of warrant exception, an air marshal also needs to satisfy the "probable cause" requirement of Constitution when they make a search or an arrest.
China started developing large aircraft in 1970. The project was frustrated due to the change of policy and personnel. In 2006, China reopened the large aircraft project and designated it a major project of the national high-tech industry. Scholars and the industry suggested that the State Council make special regulations for the development of this project so as to guarantee by law the sustainability of the project. The Brazilian aircraft industry grows rapidly since 1969 under the governmental support and intervention. Embraer has become the 4th largest aircraft manufacturer in the world. The Brazilian experience of supporting the industry by law and government policies can be used as reference by China in the development of the aircraft industry.
Flight delay is an inevitable problem in the area of air transport. Neither the Warsaw Convention nor the China Civil Aviation Law have precise definition of flight delay. Judging from nomal time for departure and reasonable time for arrival, flight delay is that aviation carrier doesn’t carry passengers to the final destination in appointed time. If transport time isn’t appointed, we should judge it from reasonability of transport time. According to the Reasonability Standard, the carrier of reasonable delay is liable for carrying out its subordinate obligation without compensation for loss. In the meantime, carrier of unreasonable delay is not only liable for predictable loss, but also for breach fee independently.
Based on the actual project and practical application, an analysis is made of the definitions, methods and their application in the value assessment of engineering. Then an optimal value theory is put forward and innovatively applied to the equipment value assessment. In addition, we put forward the definition of assessment coefficient of equipment value and analyze the equipment value model, assessment model, optimal value computing method and the most appropriate functional level deciding method, which provides important theories and methods for solution argument, value assessment, R & D order and scientific decision making.
This paper establishes the wave function model for the rate of stock market returns, and gives out the distribution function of the rate of stock market returns by using the historical data of Shanghai Stock Exchange(SSE) Composite Index. The distribution function exhibits strong compatibility with the returns earned on the SSE. This demonstrates that the principle from quantum mechanics can be applied to stock market at some aspect. The distribution function shows that the returns is highly leptokurtic, fat-tail, and asymmetric. Moreover, compared with the London market, the Shanghai market has higher returns, but also exists greater risk. This shows that the Chinese stock market is speculative and risky at the same time, and also shows that the economic situation of China is good, but the stability of stock markets still needs to be strengthened.
A combined forecast model is more accurate than a single forecasting model. Based on the electricity consumption data from 1978 to 2007, by combing the VAR model, the GM(1,1) model and the WGM(1,1) model, we set up the grey VAR combined forecast model and forecast the electricity consumption from 2008 to 2015. The research results show that the forecast values are accurate: the average relative error is only 4.88%, so it can be used in the application as one of the efficient methods.
The paper studies the contextual performance of middle-level managers in high-tech enterprises in China. On the basis of relevant studies from home and abroad, the contextual performance of middle-level managers in high-tech enterprises can be divided into five dimensions. Contextual performance is an important component of middle-level managers’ performance.The study is important to raise awareness of contextual performance,and clearly indicates the content,methods and applications of middle-level managers’ contextual performance.
Foreign patents play a prominent role in developing countries, and technological capacity and bilateral trades are the basis of foreign patenting in China. Negative Binomial Model based on panel data is applied, and the findings are as follows. First, technological innovation capacity supports foreign countries’ patenting in China; second, it is more important for a foreign patent to protect its market in its home country from harm done by Chinese goods and services than to protect its Chinese market; third, while one country’s FDI in China increases, the country’s propensity to patent inventions decreases.
Quality of working life is a concept which has become increasingly more important to the work of human resources management. By handling indexes with Fuzzy Quantitative Method Ⅲ, qualitative indexes can be transformed into quantitative indexes. Then, we can build the QWL evaluation index so as to evaluate the employees’ QWL situation. The results of an empirical research on 1276 technicians in 40 aviation companies show that the QWL evaluation index we have built with Fuzzy Quantitative Method Ⅲ can achieve quantitative and formal measurement and assessment on employees’ QWL.
Relevance theory, which regards verbal communication as an ostensive-inferential process, focuses on communication and cognition. This theory has made great contribution to the study of literary translation. It explains why literary works are translatable. It can also make suitable explanation to the degree of contexual effect and to the phenomenon of retranslation. However, the object of relevance theory is the communication of co-culture, and the object of literary translation is intercultural communication. Therefore, literary translation has to deal with some issues like social culture, background knowledge and so on. Moreover, literary translation is not a simple logically inferential process of informative intention and communicative intention. That is, there is some distance between relevance theory and literary translation, because relevance theory cannot provide practicable means to the cultural default of literary translation.
In 1950s, American Beat poetry was characterized by intense Zen Buddhism, which was reflected in the works written by Allen Ginsberg, Gary Snyder and Kenneth Rexroth, who have been regarded as the main representatives of the Beat Generation. The three poets transformed the mysterious experience in their Zen practice into poetry to express escaping from the reality, ecological philosophy or eternal emptiness (Sunya), all of which are the essense of Zen Buddhism.
Due to Doris Lessing’s employment of the omissive narrative method in THE GRASS IS SINGING, Moses, the murderer, has always been a silent voice ever since his appearance till his exit. This narrative blank partly leads to the critic’s stereotyped reading of Moses whose murder has been simply defined as an evil product of racial alienation under the colonial system. The essay intends to reconstruct Moses’ narrative space by analyzing his multiple relationships with Mary and probing into his inner world, further to explore the revelatory significance of Mary’s tragedy to us modern beings.
DAISY MILLER is one of Henry James’s early international novels; it is also characteristic of traveling novel. In terms of Gaze theory, this paper intends to research into complicated gaze relations as well as the interesting gaze game concerning the main characters. The positions of the gazer and the gazed turn out to be inter-changeable. As another fl?neur (or traveler), Daisy carries out rebellious gaze effectively, transforming into the gazer, while Winterbourne and European culture become "the spectacle of the other" by taking the opposite direction. During the gaze game, Henry James accomplishes the construction of American cultural identity.
Phonetic harmony means harmonious pronunciation in segmental phonemes (vowels and consonants) and suprasegmental phonemes (stress, tone, etc). English phonological changes including assimilation, elision or epenthesis and linking occur for least effort and smooth pronunciation. Stress coordinates all the syllables as the pivot of rhythm. Harmony can be found in English pronunciation and word building.
An investigation of the Humanity courses shows: interdisciplinary course and curriculum system are the two typical interdisciplinary teaching models at both undergraduate and graduate levels in American universities. This feature is greatly reflected in the course content design and/or system planning; Relevant courses around a certain academic field are combined together from multi-disciplines, forming an interdisciplinary model with core and periphery courses. This model, in line with the multi-perspective and common-ground features of the Humanities, offers successful practice in the synthetical studies in liberal arts and science.
Harvard university is a class university of the United States and of the world. As a private university, in order to maintain its international status and image, the source of funding channels and use of fund for further exerting the function of university teaching, research and service play an important role. This paper analyzes the financial statement of Harvard university in fiscal 2008/2007, introduces Harvard performance of funds about strategic decisions, describes the relationship of strategy and financial statement, and in the end, proposes a few suggestions combining the actual situation of the school finance in China.
In order to calculate China-s higher education finance output reasonably and assess its impact on the growth of China-s economy, this paper extracted the total output (Y1) and revenue output (Y2) from the index system of higher education financial output, by using the principal component analysis method, and obtained a comprehensive evaluation model of China-s higher education financial output; On the basis of the above research, we studied the relationship between economic growth and aggregate output, total output and revenue output; finding that there are significant positive correlations between them, thus came to a conclusion that China-s higher education financial output has a very important promoting role in the development of Chinese economy.
Today nonmaterial factors can also contribute to improving the organization efficiency and its integrated competition capability as well as material factors such as technology and currency. The organization culture is treated as an important nonmaterial factor so it is necessary to do research on the relation between organization culture and organization efficiency. Firstly a qualitative analysis about how the cultures influence the postgraduate education organization efficiency is conducted and then a quantitative analysis is included. The influencing model measuring the organization culture impact on postgraduate education organization efficiency is established and improved by building the value altitude model for organization culture and works including interview, questionnaire and analyzing the collected data.
Currently college educators are brewing a new round of teaching reformation in order to adapt to the development of the new era. Based on the analysis of the contribution of first-generation network teaching platforms to English teaching and their problems shown in the new era, this paper puts forward the idea of constructing a new-generation, constructivism-based and content-open network teaching platforms. It also creates a new model for network teaching procedure, and gives an example of an individualized platform structure. The paper finally analyzes the problems to which we need to attach importance in the course of constructing open platforms.
The western learner autonomy concentrates on the definition of autonomy and the strategies employed by learners in idealized conditions. Chinese researchers, while introducing the theories, have mainly focused on the studies of "autonomy" concepts, the application of available strategies in Chinese setting and the evaluation of autonomous strategies. In reviewing both western and Chinese studies, the author points out that the construction of need-based multi-level-learning resources should precede autonomous learning of College English in Chinese setting.