2011, Vol. 24 No.3
Publication date: 25 May 2011
The Healthy Communities Movement and research have developed for several decades in many western countries but it has aroused little attention in present-day China. Based on a review of the existing literature, the article first examines the term of healthy communities, the basic principles of a healthy community, and the relationship among resilience, sustainability and healthy communities, and then it develops a conceptual framework for measuring healthy communities and a conceptual framework for the system of healthy community indicators. Finally, the article analyzes the evaluation problems in terms of indicators and measures for healthy communities.
In liberalism context, the analysis on the feasibility which is about paternalistic interference behavior of the government resorts to the genuineness of individual will, and as the most significant express approach of individual will, consent theory has become the key point in the dabate of paternalistics and anti-paternalistics. However, because of the limitations of consent, there has been some inevitable plight during justifying the paternalistic behavior of the government by the individual will.
Due to man-s bounded rationality, the increasing uncertainties from the volatility of the environment and the rapid development of science and technology, various emergencies that break out in this turbulent world are beyond human ability to foresee and handle. The article presents the concept of Non-Conventional Emergency Events , and gives a deeper analysis of the true features and the constraint characteristics of Non-Conventional Emergency Events which are originally characterized with uncertainties in time, information, status, programs, procedures and consequences. When non-conventional emergencies break out, with the variability of the environment, complexity of the process, scarcity of resources and organizational rigidity, along with other problems such as decision-making in urgent conditions and non-procedural solution making, the only way to respond effectively is to come up with contingency strategies in special situations rapidly and react simultaneously and appropriately.
In the social sciences context, "mechanism" means a certain social system’ principle and way of working or running. It is goal-oriented, parts or units intercoupled, self-organized and well running. Based on the above definition, governance mechanism includes: the purpose and concept of governance, the object and scope of governance, agency or actors of governance, measures and methods of governance, procedures and processes of governance. From the perspective of governance mechanisms, this paper describes the development of Neihu Community Safety Promotion Organization, focusing on the building of safety mechanism based on empirical analysis, and provides reference and experience to the Mainland.
Based on the previous emergency management theories and the specialty of the education system in China, a management system of collegial mass emergency is built, and is divided into five subsystems: the monitoring and early warning subsystem, the control subsystem, the college students’ response subsystem, the contingency planning subsystem and the resource protection subsystem. The run processes and functions of each subsystem are analyzed in detail. The emergency management system of collegial mass emergency is a special computer integrated system. There is process monitoring of event developments, real-time response and subsequent decision-making program. The emergency management is a complex integrated intelligent decision support system.
With the continuous development of the manned space technology and the whole international society, especially in China, relevant manned space legal problems are increasingly prominent. China-s manned space career started earlier, rapid development, now has become the world third successful mastery of outer space to make space activities technology country. However, China-s space legislation lag behind the development of space technology, manned space more of its success brings lots of impact. To this, China should be in compliance with the current international convention, on the basis of strengthening domestic legislation, the coordination of international and domestic relevant legal provisions, guarantee the space strategy implementation.
With the development of modern science and technology, especially space technology, present situation of security cooperation has been becoming more and more dangerous in outer space. It is shown that the threat of individual countries to seek absolute advantage and absolute hegemony in outer space be further intensified, the tendency of weaponization and arms race be more obvious,effect of self-destruction of space debris be more serious and man-made pollution be worsen in outer space environment. The main reasons that lead to sluggish of space security cooperation include as the following, imbalance of the distribution structure of powers in space security cooperation, insufficient of coercive force to restraint space weaponization and arms race, weakness in the basis of common interests of governance on space debris, lack common awareness of security of space environment. Therefore, to advance space security cooperation, we should look for a solution to security cooperation through coordination of international security interaction, severely restraint space weaponization and arms race, promote the formulation of the rules for space and enhance security cooperation of space environment through initiative of new security concept.
Air Passengers can suffer mental distress in many cases such as Passengers death ; wounded and disabled; frighten; luggage damage or lose; flight delay; overbooking; rejecting carriage and so on. Various mental injury compensation and limits have some difference in legislation and judicial adjudication. Judge has greater free discretion on damage fact; causation; amount of damages; reference to the law in action for compensation of passengers mental distress.
The shareholder agreements signed by promoters before the establishment of incorporation are preincorporation contracts which only bind promoters, while articles of incorporation signed by shareholders who have paid the registered capital after the establishment work the same as legal norm, binding the company , signed shareholders , the unsigned boards and supervisors, etc. When a company is formed and registered under law, shareholder agreements will not be replaced by articles of incorporation , and their effectiveness will not certainly cease without amendment, change or termination of shareholder agreements. In a case of lawsuit, there does not exist a final confirmation between shareholder agreements and articles of incorporation, depending on different objects of proof.
As the construction of a government ruled by law has become a paradigm of modern governments, it is of intellectual necessity to analyze the legal bases of Theory on Government Ruled by Law in the perspective of thought history. In Second Treatise of Government, Locke demonstrated the transformation from natural state to civil government and related property theory, and expounded systematically limited government theory on the base of foregoing theories, thus provided practical and realistic theoretical bases for modern liberal states and governments ruled by law, which played a far-reaching influence on modern Theory of Government Ruled by Law.
Constitutional change is to make up for the gap between social fact and constitutional norm, which is different from constitutional amending, constitutional interpretation and violation of the constitution. So, constitutional change is a kind external fact with legal validity. Constitutional change must be evaluated by the value inherent in the law. This will bring a limit of constitutional change. Constitutional change can not violate constitutional value and become unconstitutional. At the same time, constitutional change must lie in the interpretational space of constitutional text. Otherwise, we should amend the constitution to make up for the gap between social fact and constitutional norm.
The Civil Society theory have experienced several important periods since from Hobbes. In the first period, there is an opposition between civil society and natural state, the second period developed around the opposition between civil society and political state. Put it definitely,John Locke try to use civil society in place of political state, but this movement was fiercely attacked by Rousseau, and then Hegel want to establish the priority of political state to civil state, while neglected the political characteristic of civil state. Karl Marx ultimately revealed the complex relation between civil society and political sate, and thus resulted to a new research field, that is the Law and Administration.
To achieve political harmony is the political ideal of Utopian socialists, who wrote books and fully demonstrated on political harmony and its establishment, designed programs, and carried out experiments for it. Marx and Engels firstly promoted political harmony to the level of theory; Lenin put the construction of socialist political harmony into practice. Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin, and Hu Jintao, in different historical stages and in different ways, inherited, enriched and developed Marxist harmony, exploring the road of political harmony of Sinicization of Marxism and socialism with Chinese characteristics. Studying Marxist "Harmony" and the thinking of political harmony contained in it is of great theoretical and practical significance for building a socialist harmonious society at present.
Improving airline service quality is an important means to differentiate competitors and gain comparative competitive advantage in the airline industry. Improving airline service quality calls for an effective and practical measuring model and indicators to measure service quality reliably and accurately. Based on the literature review of airline service quality, this paper constructs the concept model on perceived airline service quality, finds six internal dimensions of airline service quality and the differentiation of its intrinsic dimensions at three levels.
The Behavioral Equilibrium Exchange Rate approach is one of the most influential approaches to estimate equilibrium exchange rates. With the help of VEC technique, the author investigates the cointegration relation among RMB real effective exchange rate, the ratio of trade surplus to GDP, real effective terms of trade, total factor productivity and the ratio of foreign direct investment to GDP according to BEER approach. The empirical investigation shows that although RMB real effective exchange rate is undervalued over long time period, with the changing of real fundamentals, the RMB exchange rate now is very close to its equilibrium level.
Emily Bronte, a 19th-century English novelist who is famous for her Wuthering Heights, can also boast of her genuine poetic talents. In her poems, she has absorbed the essence of Romanticism in poetry, while her unique personality and isolated lifestyle have marginalized her writings. In her Gondal poetry, the multi-perspective and polyphonic narration has deconstructed the integrity produced by the traditional narrative techniques, thereby penetrated deep into the nature of existence and a sense of nihilism is thus revealed. The paper is devoted to the discussion and elaboration of the polyphonic narration employed in two narrative sequences in Gondal poetry.
In the history of American poetry, Ezra Pound was one of the leaders of the Imagism Movement which was popular in the 20th century. The contribution of Ezra Pound is to the development of modem poetry what the foundation is to a skyscraper. This paper briefly introduces his masterpiece A GIRL and presents an overall review of Ezra Pound-s life experience. By comparing a tree with the image in A GIRL, readers can clearly perceive Pound-s eternal love to his homeland.
THE WASTE LAND expresses the dual confusions of Eliot T S (1888—1965) himself and culture. It is "individual" confusion, because it is a "history of soul" of Eliot; The crisis of civilization, the disillusionment of the world and the despair of men reflected in it are the embodiment of the confusion of "culture". The thesis starts with Eliot-s state of life, state of marriage and religious view, etc, excavates the roots of Eliot-s creating of THE WASTE LAND on the basis of analysing the states of human existence and society THE WASTE LAND reflects.
This paper offers a detailed study of the literature on cognitive and metaphor in China by selecting pertinent articles published in 10 major academic journals of foreign language research from 1989 to 2008, and a review of the major achievements. Results show that there has been a great increase in the number of articles; regarding research methods, non-empirical study plays a dominant role, with empirical study taking up an increasingly larger proportion.
This research investigated the English learning motivations of Ph. D. students. It was found that their instrumental motivatoin level was significantly higher then other types of motivations. The personal characteristics such as gender and age were not significantly related to their English learning motivations, reflecting the convergency in their motivations. The students with higher level of motivations tended to use language learning strategies more frequently. But immediate achievement and learning situation were not significantly related to most language learning strategies. Intrinsic interest was positively related to their English proficiency, while immediate achievement was negatively related to their English proficiency. The pedagogical implications of the findings were discussed.
Chinese culture suffers from its loss in our foreign languages teaching of higher education. This paper aims to study the needs analysis of Chinese culture in Beihang University, a representative of key science and engineering universities in our country. The study investigates Beihang University students- English language abilities of Chinese culture and their attitudes towards and expectations of Chinese culture in Foreign language teaching. The results show that they are lack of English language abilities of Chinese culture and they are strongly for the emphasis of Chinese culture in foreign languages teaching. The findings will function as references for cultural teaching reform in foreign languages teaching in key science and engineering universities.
In order to improve the graduates- research capacity, Beihang University established three advanced innovative practice bases in 2004. These bases were constructed with the guide of "practice makes perfect", and are giving many advanced research courses and more opporunities to enjoy the independent research. It has been proved that more and more graduate students get benefit from the advanced innovative practice bases. This article analyses the operation of the bases so as to improve the graduates- innovative capacity and to lessen encumbrance.
A Marxist learning Party is a special form of learning organization and learning Party, which is political, scientific and innovative. Fully realizing the importance of constructing study-model students general party branches and actively exploring the approaches are not only the key to college students- Party construction, but also an important component of constructing a Marxist learning Party.