2011, Vol. 24 No.6
Publication date: 25 December 2011
Ostrom Elinor started her polycentric journey trying to challenge the state theory and the market theory. She proposed the polycentric theory of urban governance using the public economics theory through the empirical research of police services lasting for 15 years in her early stage. Later she developed the institutional analysis and development framework (IAD), which was the basis for empirical research of common-pool resources, including fishery, forests, irrigation, and water basin for more than 30 years. With this process, she discovered the eight design principles of self-governance. Now her latest theoretical inquiry includes the following four aspects: further explore a more general theory of behavior approach to human rational choice; play the central role of trust in research; further consider the micro-situational context of human collective action; develop the general framework for the sustainability of social-ecology system pushing the frontier of collective theory and common-pool resources. Inter-disciplines, multiple methods, and collaborative researches are the most characteristics of her research.
Different from the models of privatization and central-authority, Professor Ostrom has proposed self-governance as an alternative model to resolve collective action dilemmas, and developed the theory of polycentric governance. After briefly reviewing the research background of the problem of collective action, this paper translates the content of Professor Ostrom's speech and questions and answers at Beihang University on May 9, 2011. These elements not only covers the talks on Ostrom's road to Nobel Prize and academic research methods, but investigates self-governance and polycentric governance theories and their applications by interactive discussion on some concrete issues such as public transport, China-s reform, bureaucratic transaction costs, Inner Mongolia grassland management, the contradiction between polycentric governance and tradition of centralization, institutional diversity, the contradiction between improving living standards and protecting living environment, and the value of heterogeneity in a self-governance system.
This article is a field study on "The Second Guangdong Hundred People and Hundred Speeches Program " which is over 100 public emergency treatment training speeches covering all the 21 cities of the prefecture level including Shunde District within one month in Guangdong province. The study presents the current situation of the public emergency responding treatment, summarizes 6 characteristics of this activity, i.e. profound speech content, focusing points, more grassroots audience, a greater variety of forms, more interactive speeches, and far-reaching influence. The paper points out ten existing problems of public training of emergency knowledge and proposes nine suggestions in improving the work of Guangdong "Hundred people Hundred speeches" Program.
To meet the needs of emergency management for geographical information system, this research analysis of function of GIS which are suitable for pre-warning signals, this research take the comparing manifestation between the function analysis rendering graphics with one mine map, the layer overlaying schematic diagram, and special map classification displaying schematic diagram. Meanwhile, this paper expounds comprehensively the function and principle of GIS which suits to the application in pre-warning signal system. On the ground of the former research, this paper presents standard method of pre-warning based on GIS, carries on the empirical research which with coal and gas outburst pre-warning for the example. The research is for the sake of providing dynamic and multidimensional technical means for emergency management system realization, and providing helpful ideas for the pre-warning system development which related with the geographical position closely.
The impact of flight delays and denied boarding due to overbooking has disrupted the normal operations at airports. They jeopardize the aviation safety and have become a social problem. There should be an innovative management approach to resolve this problem. This study aims to undertake research in the applicable legislation to tackle the liability and compensation for damages due to flight delays and denied boarding as a result of overbooking, to examine the current flight delay situation in China and recommend strategy to deal with flight disruption, to strengthen the role and responsibility of local government, and to ensure accountability of airport management body. China has already established legislation for liability and compensation for damages due to flight delays and overbooking. It is necessary to stand for prohibition of overbooking according to circumstances, to establish a mechanism for claims and compensation for damages in accordance with the legislation. It is crucial to properly enforce and implement the law, to strengthen education and communication about the legislation, to resolutely prevent passengers from taking drastic action due to flight delays, to earnestly safeguard the normal airport operations and to ensure aviation safety and normal operations of air transport in accordance with the legislation.
The regulatory mode of selling agents of civil aviation has transformed from administrative approval and governmental supervision to trade association's endorsement and self-discipline after 2006, but the former is in fact a kind of administrative determination while the latter is public administration. Civil Aviation Administration of China should exercise powers to make regulations, supervise trade associations and settle disputes, facilitate Selling Agents of Civil Aviation Committee attached to China Air Transportation Association to become a nation-wide independent institution and carry out self-discipline of selling agents enterprises, while the method of decreasing illegal selling agents is to loosen qualifications of endorsement, cut down items and reduce standard of charge, or to change endorsement into registration, charge some registration fees only and let airliners control its selling agents.
Space asset means any functional space object which is launched into outer space or assembled or manufactured in outer space, for civil or military purpose. Currently, space debris, harmful interference and anti-satellite weapons pose serious threat to space asset security. Many countries are very concerned with space asset security, but they have not been able to create special international rules for this purpose. Although the UN space treaties, the ITU treaties and Radio Regulations thereof, and PTBT to some extent, play an important role for the protection of space asset security, these rules cannot achieve the desired effect.
There are many legal leaks in China's Corporate Law regarding promoters' liabilities after incorporation of companies limited by shares.China should amend Corporate Law as follows: Firstly, after incorporation,the companies should assume the responsibility as well as rights,when promoters contract with others on behalf of the corporation in the incorporating process.Secondly,when the other party knows or ought to know that the promoter is contracting for his/her own benefit,while on behalf of the corporation to be incorporating,then he/she would assume the results for himself/herself and could not ask for the company to assume liability.Thirdly,promoters should assume liability,if their activities go beyond reasonable ambit.The blameless promoters can recover from faulty ones.If unauthorized agency constitutes agency by estoppel,the other party of the trade may insist on the availability of the transaction.Meanwhle,the impaired corporation may recover from promoters.Fourthly,promoters may assume the incorporating fees beyond what the founding meeting of the company has recognised.Fifthly,if promoters slack in discharging obligations,they should bear the responsibility of compensation to the impaired party.Sixthly,the liability of promoters can be abolished by all the shareholders' agreement.
The commercial bail is an important part of the bail system in US. It is significant to protect the personal freedom of the accused. Using it for reference can be helpful for the reform of the guaranteed pending trial in expanding its scope, and ways, reducing the discrimination against mobile persons, overcoming the insufficiency of current supervision.
The brilliant thought "serve the people heart and soul" of Mao Zedong is the valuable spirit wealth of communist Party of China. In the important time of celebration of the 90th anniversary of the establishment of the Party, we review this brilliant thought, study and explore the historical origin ,system info and the scientific connotation of it. All these practices will have very important and far-reaching significance for the persistence of the Party's mass line which focuses on "all for the people" and "all rely on the people," so as to strengthen and improve the mass work in the new situation, realize the goal of economic and social development during the period of the 12th Five-Year Plan, and strive for a new victory in the construction of comprehensively well-off society.
Usually, we acquire our understanding of the philosophical state in the background of Chinese traditional philosophy. Namely, the reason for the being of philosophical state is that it brings the "human" spiritual state and ideal life to people. However, practice which is the unique activity of human has its "metaphysical instinct" transcending the reality from the angle of the Marxism philosophy. As the theoretical characterization of human "metaphysical instinct", philosophy has metaphysical pursuit transcending the common sense and the philosophical state is such metaphysical pursuit exactly. Therefore, as metaphysical pursuit characterized the human "metaphysical instinct", philosophical state is the due sense of philosophy itself.
In the government procurement bidding process, price has been playing a very important role. Low price points are more likely to win the bid, and enable the government to save a lot of financial resources in its procurement, but also produce a lot of problems, such as the successful bidder who offered a low price choose to abandon the bid and cooperate with the 2nd winner, low price protected high price , low price access and high price kidnapping. The paper describes the causes of these problems and gives solution to these problems.
In the 21st century, the proportion of intellectual capital in the economy has grown rapidly, and it has made the researchers enormously interested. At present, the enterprise management begins to pay close attention to how to evaluate current intellectual capital management status and find the gap. Based on the data envelopment analysis method, and by use of the listed companies in China-s Shanghai stock exchange information technology industries as a sample, this paper researched and analyzed the management status of intellectual capital. And its efficiency improvement suggestions were put forward. The study finds that the result is satisfactory in about two thirds of the companies, and the efficiency of the rest is low.
Consumers' perception towards brand image is influential on its brand selection behavior. This paper finds out that among those brand image indices, there are two kinds of factors, i.e. "survival factor" and "growing factor", which have different impacts on brand selection. "Survival factor" is the necessary condition of brand selection behavior, also the necessary condition of brand value. "Growing factor" is the sufficient condition of brand value, while it can only be effective when "survival factor" exists. Study on the relationship between consumers' brand image perception and their brand selection behavior, can help brand managers to utilize the marketing resources and to manage the brand system more effectively.
Toni Morrison's Beloved is studied here from the perspective of post-colonial feminism. By discussing the miserable fate of black females under sexism and racism, analyzing their marginalized state-living without identity or human rights, and exploring Morrison's thoughts on the identity construction of black females, the thesis demonstrates the writer's idea that black females could be rid of the double oppression from racism and sexism only when their history would be rewritten, their self-awareness aroused, their selfhood returned and their self-identity reconstructed.
One Hundered Years of Solitude is the masterpiece of Garcia Marquez, the representative of Contemporary Columbia Literature. This essay uses Plato's allegory of the cave to analyze the sense of solitude which permeated this novel. It reaches the conclusion that the solitude of the protagonists in the work reveals the inconsistency between desire for truth and reality, and the conflict between development of reason and religious belief. It points out that in order to cast off the shadow of solitude, Latin American people should step out of the dark cave and get rid of their fatuity and conformism with the help of love and solidarity.
Charlotte Bronte-s novel JANE EYRE has occupied a position of privilege in the feminist canon since it has a special female voice.The work forms a central female discourse space by JANE EYRE-s individual narrative, but contrary to the female discourse space, there is a marginal Everyday life space.The work-s space character is retrorse extending.The paper tries to analyze the novel-s space character by means of Henri Lefebvre-s Critique of Everyday Life and Michel Foucault-s discourse theory.The work is Charlotte Bronte-s considering about female space in Victorian age,meanwhile,this space character provides an analysis space for pursuers.
Translational ethics of commitment develops on the foundation of traditional translational ethics including ethics of representation, ethics of service, ethics of communication and norm-based ethics. Theoretically supported by communicative ethics,translational ethics of commitment integrates all the ethical values held by various schools of traditional translational ethics and elaborates translational ethics on the macro-level. Not only does it explicate the responsibilities that translators should take in the process of translation, but also it clearly points out the field to which it can be applied. Besides, it equally treats all the agents to translation. All these make it a transcendence of traditional translational ethics.
The growing recognition of the importance of engineering student-s ethic responsibility was one of the notable changes in engineering education in the USA. With increasingly American university setting up course related to engineering ethics, how to assess it effects becoming the focus of engineering educator. Based on analyzing the objective of engineering education, this article presents the current evaluation tool and method being used in engineering ethics education, elaborates three typical evaluation tools and methods and points out the five characteristics in assessment of engineering ethics education, such as much attentions are paid to student-s ethical reasoning ability, combination of qualitative and quantitative method and so on. In the end, the paper puts forward some suggestions about how to carry out ethic education and how to evaluate engineering student-s "soft" ability in China university.
Employability has been a key field in Western Higher Education research since 1990s. In China, poor employability has become a critical factor for graduates with their hard job-hunting since 2000s. However, little research on university students-employability has been done. The paper tries to build up a development model to enhance university students-employability by the standards of graduates-employers. Furthermore, an implementation plan to the model by career interventions will be discussed.
Both teachers and students are the subjects in moral education. When teaching students, teachers show what have been organized to them and act as subjects. And students act as objects when being taught, and select, justify, accept and acknowledge what teachers show to them. In the process of moral education, teachers and students interact with each other, forming the relationship of "subject-object-subject", so as to further develop the process of moral education.
Introduction to Economics and Management is a compulsory course for undergraduate students whose major is not Economics or Management at Beihang University. The course is also one of the key courses of the university. In this paper, we analyzed the status quo of the course, such as lack of textbook and normative lecture notes and simplicity of the teaching method. We put forward several suggestions such as elaborate course construction, writing of textbook, and construction of the course website. Furthermore, we introduced some efforts both in the course construction, say, compilation of problem sets and test bank, and teaching method reform practice of the course. These teaching methods include those of student-centered, incorporation of theory and application, heuristic teaching and case method.