2013, Vol. 26 No.4
Publication date: 25 July 2013
The political and administrative relationship has been the core issue of public administration research. From the perspective of the relationship between the civil service and the politics, especially party politics, This paper reviews and analyzes the relationship between the politics and the administration in the U.S. federal government ,and points out that maintaining the balance between separation and integration has been the main line of the evolution of American political and administrative relationship. The political party plays a key role in the coordination of political and administrative relationship, and democratic politics provides power and security for a healthy development of the political and administrative relationship, which has important implications for regulating China's political and administrative relationship.
Economic equality, authoritative status of constitution, healthy political party system and good political culture are the basic premise of democracy. Democracy without these four factors, can hardly reach the expected outcome. Democracy in Thailand is just such a case. Since Thailand established constitutional monarchy in 1932, Thailand has gotten the basic political structures of democracy. However, without these four factors, Thailand's politics is always accompanied by chaos and unrest. The specific reasons are as follows: firstly, bipolar economic development causes election's dilemma; secondly, the constitution is not powerful enough; thirdly, both political party and political party system are unstable; fourthly, Thailand lacks of appropriate political culture. Hence, Thailand has to cultivate these four factors as soon as possible in order to make its democracy work well.
The omnipotent government has a monopoly of governance powers but refuses to take responsibility. It is important to limit the authority of government, but it must be based on the indemnification of responsibility about the public governance. The key process to restrictions of omnipotent government does not lie in the unilateral restrictions on government power. We must be committed to preventing the emergence of the great gap between authority and responsibility during the public governance, and allow them to effectively match the socio-economic development process.
Back in the 1960s, the effect of social security on savings had been concerned by American academia. But it was only after Feldstein pointed out that social security had reduced private savings greatly in America until 1974 that the controversy about this problem came to a white heat. Many famous pundits threw themselves into investigation about this problem, brought forward a variety of analytical methods and viewpoints, but an acknowledged conclusion has not come into being until today. US academia debate on this problem is the dispute of social security reform road in essence. So we should not pander to a viewpoint like sheep, particularly should not be anxious to take a viewpoint as the basis for their proposition of social security reform, But should learn from their research methods, absorb the advantages and keep moving on.
As far as migrant workers are concerned, there is an instinctive desire for them to be enrolled into the injury social safety net and enjoy social security rights. However, as a vulnerable group, with employers in the game, they don't have the ability to claim occupational safety and labor rights protection. On one hand, it is necessary to adopt the beneficial arrangement for migrant workers. On the other, it is also essencial to establish multiple security mechanisms constituted by government supervision, including corporation responsibility, fighting for rights by labor union, health service and social assistance system. It is crucial to accelerate the pace of implementation of "Prevention-Rehabilitation-Compensation" trinity-type of injury insurance..It is also necessary to jointly safeguard the rights of migrant workers to achieve injury risk reduction on the basis of supervising the fulfillment of social responsibilities by all parties.
Satellite Navigation has brought enormous benefits to human beings, while its potential danger may lead to liability issue. It may fall within the scope of liability for damage between signal providers and users. Although the major providers are against the application of the Liability Convention to damage caused by signal malfunction, their position can't decide the interpretation of the Liability Convention. Besides, it is not necessary to draft a GNSS Liability Convention. So far, there has never been a GNSS-related accident, which can be learnt from liability of similar signal providers. For this analysis, the current laws in the US, in the Russian Federation and in the European Union will be studied. Some aspects to the Liability Convention will also be seen.
Disputes caused by flight delays had bothered world airlines and legislative institutions for a long time. In 2004, for the first time, European Community passed the NO. 261/2004 Regulation to deal with the issue, specifying that airlines were liable to pay compensation to passengers whose flights are delayed. It proves that the EU tries to set up a legal regime conducive to passengers' rights outside of the framework of the Montreal Convention. Later, the Court of Justice of the EU ruled four vital cases, such as Sturgeon, consolidating and perfecting the compensation system. Recently, carrier-passenger disputes happened frequently in China. Chinese are in urgent need of a proper resolution to get out of the affray-compensation vicious circle. There are four aspects of the EU's judicial practice for the purpose of getting some lessons and enlightenments on Chinese aviation: establish Chinese delay compensation system; specify the carriers- obligation of notification; identify the administration; properly balance the interest of the carriers and the passengers.
Shang Yang was derogated by later generations of Confucian intellectuals because of harsh punishment. However, when we restore the objective conditions of Shang Yang reform period, we found that political reform had become inevitable to change the fate of the weak Qin State and the means of reform was to Strengthen the sovereign authority and run all kinds of national affairs by law. It was justified and necessary significance that Shang Yang formulated harsh punishment in implementing Agricultural War. Because of opposition to the orthodox position of Confucianism, the reforms of Shang Yang was affirmed harshly and ungenerously.
The continental law system and common law system apply different methods to resolve disputes. Advantage standards of proof and high standards of proof are the most significant differences of characterization. The court to judge the case is based on the burden of proof, become the normality of the judicial practice, which distorts the original idea of the system.The judge jurisdiction involve in objective proof responsibility, thus hitting the fundamental theory of proof responsibility. There are some problems in the result of Judgments. The burden of proof theory is only limited in the field of objective burden of proof, which is not scientific practice. The research of Subjective burden of proof will be a new field, which focuses on assisting codes of conduct evidence and the corresponding proof of responsibility.
Community is one of the most important concepts; however, its meanings are multiple. Community in the traditional society and state are two kinds of community. On the basis of the analysis of Marx's Excerpts from Lewis Henry Morgan's Ancient Society, we think the community in the traditional society is a real community because it is related with family based on dependent relations and state is an illusionary community. In Marx's opinions, the development of society is the formation of illusionary community with disintegrating of real community in the prehistory of human society. Furthermore, in modern society, it is the illusionary community, i.e. state, that opposes to civil society.
It's the result of the development of modern capitalism that labor become an important issue. Hegel explored the dialectic of labor in his writings several times, expounding the enlightenment function of labor, which endows labor the ontological value the first time in the history of philosophy. Marx inherited Hegel the philosophy sight on labor, but he is not confined to this. Marx achieved a fusion of horizons of Philosophy and Economics by transformation of the traditional metaphysical and critical study of classical economics. The process that Marx beyond Hegelian labor theory is expressed in three critique of Hegel's concept of labor,to transform Hegel's abstract mental labor into specific relations of production.
Based on previous papers, this article analyzes the three influencing factors of oil price, including demand, supply and speculation, and constructs whole-sample VAR model without consideration of business cycles and sub-sample VAR models with the consideration of business cycles. The comparison on the result of impulse response and variance decomposition verifies three opinions proposed according to the character of oil price and economic theory: oil price was based on expectancy; oil demand was leading influencing factors, while the influence of oil supply and speculation was little during the whole period; the influencing effect and relative importance of the three factors were different under different business cycles. The result helps to understand the pattern of fluctuation of oil price, and sheds light on the oil policy of China.
In the process of building an innovative country and strengthening the army with S&T, optimal allocation of Aeronautics & Astronautics resources is the important support and driving force about the National Defense Science and technology progress and economics. How to optimize Aeronautics & Astronautics science and technology resource allocation efficiency, rely on scientific and technological progress and innovation to speed up the changes in the formation of combat effectiveness and economic development mode is the major strategic issues to solve. But at present, regional imbalance of China's aeronautics & astronautics science and technology resources allocation efficiency is obvious, for the next step we should exploit potentialities, pay attention to the long term effectiveness of investment in science and technology, strengthen the innovation of science and technology, and constantly optimize the science and technology resources allocation efficiency.
Online peer to peer (P2P) lending, where lending individuals make unsecured microloans to borrowing individuals, has experienced significant growth since its inception in 2005. The factors that influence the lending willingness however have not been well studied. Drawing on the social capital and social cognitive theory and using China's online P2P lending market as a backdrop, this study examines the factors influencing lenders' trust and lending willingness. The results reveal that borrowers with more social capitals have more trust from lenders. This relationship is stronger for lenders with greater perception of information asymmetry toward online lending markets.
Toni Morrison's fiction here is approached from the perspective of Feminism, with the focus on the relationship between the black women and white women in her fiction, leading to the exploration of the open feminist views of Morrison. From the representation of the alienation between black women and white women in The Bluest Eye and Tar Baby, to the mutual help between them in Beloved, and at last to the sisterhood between them in Paradise, Morrison changes from having doubts about Feminism to cherishing hope for it, revealing to us her open feminist views, which fall into accord with her anticipation of the development of Feminism.
The Catcher in the Rye, as the representative work by the American Jewish writer Salinger, tells the experience of a "degenerate" teenager Holden. The degeneration of Holden is only on the surface, and as a revolt against the commercial society, it constitutes the criticism against the corruption of morality in that society. Holden's degeneration is a critical parody of the society then, his hypocrisy embodies a pursuit of the sincerity in a deeper sense, and his sentimental attachment to the nature manifests an anti-alienation theme. Holden's degeneration has profound moral meanings and houses manifold ethical as well as sociological dimensions, among which an ideal of moral redemption is given expression.
This experiment was designed to explore the effects of working memory capacity to Chinese EFL Learners' thematic inferential processing during text comprehension. The experiment adopted reading time method with working memory capacity being between participant variable and the priming conditions within participant variable. The participants of this experiment were non-English major college students, and their online thematic inferential processing during narrative text comprehension was examined. Analyses of the data pointed to the following two major findings of this experiment. Firstly, there is a significant main effect of working memory capacity. That is, high working memory capacity participants were able to draw thematic inferences online, whereas their low working memory counterparts showed relative failure to do so. Secondly, there was a significant main effect of priming conditions, but the interaction between the priming conditions and working memory capacity was not statistically significant.
The training characteristics of Chinese higher engineering talents are mainly affected by six factors including resources, market demand, cultivation strategies and structure, the relevant strategies related industry, government and the opportunity. They are formed in response to the allocation of different elements and diversity of ways with which to achieve.
The paradigm of the philosophy of higher education is an important standard to measure the maturity of the subject of the philosophy of higher education, while there are extremely limited documents to study the paradigm of the philosophy of the higher education in the academic circles, therefore we need to give a definition to the paradigm of the philosophy of higher education and make classification research on it. The paradigm of philosophy of higher education can be divided into theoretical paradigm and methodological paradigm. As for the theory paradigm, it can be classified as orientation paradigm, doctrine paradigm and system paradigm, and the methodological paradigm can be classified as philosophy paradigm, general science paradigm and discipline paradigm, each concrete paradigm (sub-paradigm) being able to be divided into smaller paradigms. Paradigms of philosophy of higher education have such functions as research function, directional function, guide function, definite function and dialogue function.
The ideas of British university originated in the medieval Oxbridge University, formed in the 19th century, changed in the late 19th and early 20th century and improved after World War II. Newman, Whitehead and Ashby elucidated and promoted the ideas at different times. From the classical to modern times, the University ideas have undergone significant changes, but the core and essence have been able to uphold: cultivating human of culture and ability with liberal education; the pursuit of theory research and academic excellence; insisting on university autonomy and academic freedom.
The concealed moral education is one of the education modes by which educators utilize various resources to put the goal of moral education into environment, functions and activities, taking the methods as latent content, indirect teaching and independent feeling, let the student place themselves in a particular pleasurable situation of education to complete the process of moral education. Through the sample survey, the authors found the basic current situation of the concealed moral education is incomplete, the work has not developed well and the educators do not have the desired model. And we put forward the recessive moral education in universities should be done from the perspectives of improving the educators' quality, and emphasing on the self-discipline environment construction.
As the main place of university Students' life and learning, the learning environment construction of new campus is directly related to the quality of talent cultivation and the long-term development of a university. At present, there are some problems in the construction of the learning environment in new campus, such as lack of the Students' learning enthusiasm and the study atmosphere, the serious late and absenteeism phenomenon. The construction of learning environment in new campus has to reinforce campus culture, teachers' team, management regulations and campus environment.