2013, Vol. 26 No.6
Publication date: 25 November 2013
The progress and innovation of science and technology are not only key forces in economic and social development, but also the core of international competitiveness. Job satisfaction of science and technology workers affects the progress and innovation of science and technology in some extent, therefore, research on job satisfaction of science and technology workers has important practical significance. According to the survey data of Chinese science and technology workers-sense of value and philosophy in Beijing area, which carried out by the China Association of Science and Technology survey team in 2010, the empirical study analysis the status and variance of the Beijing science and technological workers' job satisfaction based on the different demographic characteristics. The result show that the job satisfaction of Beijing science and technological workers is not satisfying, and there are differences between the various dimensions of job satisfaction, different demographic characteristics play different roles on the variance of the job satisfaction. At the end, the paper puts forward some suggestions to improve the science and technological workers' job satisfaction.
Rural public service supply in China in the transition period cannot effectively meet the needs of rural populations, it needs to implement its institutional innovation. This article from the perspective of resource optimization leads to new model rural public service supply, namely: cross-administrative construction of rural public service system in villages and towns, optimally configured rural infrastructure and established the rural service centres, whose advantages are in terms of cost savings, greater efficiency and economies of scale. In addition, this article also builds appropriate institutional arrangements and relocates of the roles and functions of local government. It compensates for insufficient rural public service supply through new supply of resource optimal allocation mechanism.
Since the reform and opening up, along with the rapid development of urbanization, strengthening and innovating city management becomes more and more important. There are five scenes: scattered management, negative cooperation, comprehensive confrontation, tacit symbiosis and harmonious co-existence as well as four modes: formalization, rudeness, liberalization and humanization in the game between city inspectors and street vendors in city management. It is necessary to construct the consultative governance model with the participation of city inspectors, street vendors and citizen, so as to better solve the dilemma in city administration and law enforcement.
Modern city has integrated all kinds of material, technical, cultural and social factors, which have made up the complex system through coupling of "social system" and "technical system". Based on the perspective of "society-technology system", through the analysis on the text of Emergency System Development Plan of Beijing during the "12th Five-Year", it summarizes Beijing's capacity building in emergency response and concludes that the policy innovation shows up in design of the city's resilience, polycentric governance and comprehensive precaution. It aims to provide references for subsequent development planning of other local emergency systems.
The professionalized construction for emergency management practitioners can help to solve the problem? of the lack of? professional? emergency management? personnel, and enhance the overall? emergency response capability? and level? of our country and society. At first, this paper interprets the concept and necessity of professionalized construction for emergency management practitioners,then in view of the backward? situation of professionalized construction for emergency management practitioners in our country, this paper gives five suggestions about the standard and qualification mechanism for practitioners in this field, emergency management degree education, personnel training system, specialized ethics and moral principle, and the specialized vacancies for emergency management.
China's flight delays have been getting worse in recent years, so more attention should be paid by civil aviation industry and the public. In order to improve the situation, the first step is to find the real root cause of flight delays. The reasons of flight delays that are recognized by the industry management department and experts are not the fundamental cause, so it cannot find out effective measures to deal with the flight delays. The primary cause of flight delays is the contradiction between the rapid growth of the aviation transportation and the limited use of airspace resources, and the other three contradictions. Therefore, we should aim at the four major contradictions and find a way to solve the contradictions, and step by step, flight delays can be improved.
The cross-strait flights have been developing for years. However, there are great discrepancies between the air laws of the mainland and Taiwan, which hinders the development of cross-strait flights. For the purpose of promoting the cross-strait flights, settling down the relevant disputes, we should put forward countermeasures on coordination of the conflicts of air laws of the mainland and Taiwan. The legal status of airport, which plays a vital role in coordinating the legislation on aviation of Two Sides of the Straits, is one of the protection bases of rights and interests of carrier, passenger and owner of cargo. As far as the legal system of airport is concerned, the different definition of airport reflects the discrepancies of legislation technology concerning air law. In the mainland, an airport is defined as a public infrastructure, while in Taiwan an airport is a locus publics/public place?, whose services are rendered by enterprises. The functional difference thus leads to internal and external constraints on airport management,as well as the discrepant legal status from the perspective of private law.
At Present, Civil Code in Austria,Germany,Belgium,Italy Greece,Portugal and China's Taiwan provides for the rule of liability in equity. According to it, children may be liable for their wrongful act. Liability in equity by children takes on the following characteristics: firstly,it has struck a balance between safety of victims and freedom of act of children; secondly, elements for it are more complicated;lastly, its legal effect may be full compensation or partial compensation. Its merits are the following, it can make children's property available for the compensation and it is more just in legal theory. It is not of strict liability. In the six countries and Taiwan region, elements and legal effects are different. When the minors have met standards of same-age-group children or the unimputable but more wealthier children are hurt, the minors or the poor defendant may be also held liable in equity.
Because the reorganization procedure has an enormous effect on the rights of creditors and with high costs, its beginning should meet the requirements of the second provision in the "Enterprise Bankruptcy Law of the People's Republic of China". In addition, the courts ought to ascertain whether the enterprise has the opportunity for regeneration. So, from the perspective of comparative law practice, the reorganization procedure is mainly applied to large-scale enterprises. Moreover, most of the "Merger Reorganization and the Entirely Reorganization" in China's present judicial actuality is breach of the procedural and substantive law. If the enterprise meets the requirements of the "Disregard of Corporate Personality", it should be in accordance with the joint and several liabilities rather than create a new procedure for "the law out of law". Even though the enterprise which is engaged in related transactions meets the requirements of reorganization, it should accept and hear the case and declare obligatory rights and implement procedure respectively rather than combine it.
As a fundamental right of citizens, freedom of business has been established in the constitution law and security by most countries in the world. In order to protect the basic rights of citizens over the violation of our business, the legal regulation of freedom must pursue the proportion principle, legal reservation principle,etc. Only in this way can we build a harmonious relationship between the citizens of self development and social welfare safeguard.
The essence of political belief as a unique spiritual phenomenon of human culture is ideology. In this paper, political belief specifically refers to Marxist belief or Communist belief.Chinese Marxism is a process of Marxist belief in China. The article discussed the role of political belief in Marxism sinicization mainly from three aspects, namely, the firm political belief role in promoting the development of society, in guiding the party's the practice and construction, and in unifying the practice of the masses. It can be seen that the firm political belief is the spiritual weapon to promote the development of Chinese society; it is the spiritual pillar and guidelines to induct the party's practice and construction; it is ideological basis and spiritual bond to enhance people's cohesion.
The concept of stabilizer among middle-income class originated from Germany in the early 20th century. However, the role of social stabilizer among middle-income class depends on the specific condition of our country and the policy we made in social transformation of China. The middle-income class can become an important force in maintaining social stability if they are emphasized particularly and their interests safeguarded. Otherwise, the middle-income class will demand for social revolution if their interests had been suffered and cannot get their own benefit. And, if they cannot find a benign way to revolution, they will become a key force to affect and hinder social stability.
This paper uses the DEA-Malmquist Index to measure China's pharmaceutical manufacturing R & D efficiency from 2000 to 2010, and analyze the convergence trend. The results indicate that China's overall pharmaceutical manufacturing R&D efficiency is on an uphill trend, the main driver of growth in R&D efficiency stems from technical efficiency; R&D regional efficiency differs significantly, the main reason being that technological progress and technical efficiency cannot synchronize with growth. Except for the eastern region, central and western regions as well as the national R&D efficiency convergence trend has not yet formed, technology diffusion effect cannot form the main reason for the R&D efficiency unrealized convergence.
The paper uses constant market share model to make an emprical analysis of Chinese tea export based on the United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database and the Statistics Division of the United Nations website data. The analysis shows that, the main factor to promote Chinese tea export growth since 2002 is the increasing demand of international market while the factor restricting Chinese tea export growth is the declining competitiveness and unreasonable export market structure.Improving international market competitiveness is an important way to promote Chinese tea export growth.
This paper researches the relation between executive compensation and corporate performance from the perspective of large shareholder by taking 2009—2011 private listed companies as the sample, then studies the incentive effect and entrenchment effect of large shareholder control on the incentive effects of executive compensation. Our results show that the greater the proportion of internal executives, the smaller the impact of executive compensation to corporate performance; the larger the largest shareholding ratio, the greater the impact of executive compensation to corporate performance. Further we found that the large shareholder control relates with the incentive effects of executive compensation, and has the incentive effect and entrenchment effect.
As an essential mode of translation talents cultivating, translation teaching mainly aims at developing the students-translation competence. This paper argues that the integration of the objectivist paradigm and the constructivist paradigm, in accordance with the principle that teaching model is determined by the teaching aim and contents, is a new kind of competence-oriented translation teaching model.
In recent years, relevance translation theory has been widely applied in the study of translation theory. The paper aims to explore the relationship between the English majors'subjectivity as translators and their mistranslation based on the integration of relevance translation theory with two stages of translation, namely, comprehension and expression. During the stage of comprehension, ineffective application of the translator's subjectivity results in the failure of the acquisition of the optimal relevance and leads to unintentional mistranslation. On the stage of expression, the indiscreet attitude of English majors towards the target language may directly result in the unconscious unintentional mistranslation; while their bilingual incompetence may cause a forced concession, which is conscious unintentional mistranslation. An effective application of the translator-s subjectivity enables a good reflection of the optimal relevance in the target language.
Based on Noticing Hypothesis and Interaction Hypothesis the study aims to construct consciousness-raising (C-R) model to teach writing in English with corpus-based approach. The C-R model serves to make key information more noticeable with visual and audio reinforcement. The C-R takes a role as organizing the data in a controlled and principled fashion allowing learners to form generalizations with newly acquired knowledge embedded in given language system by noticing key points and focusing on information consciously. The study attempts to answer two questions that whether this approach can improve learners'competence of using English rhetoric and in what respects can this approach enhance learners'writing ability from both local and global perspectives. The study utilized questionnaire and tests as quantitative methods on experimental and control groups. It also used descriptive statistics and two-way analysis of variance with mixed measures on two factors test to get the descriptive analysis and significance. The questionnaire indicated that the corpus data are valid for students to reinforce their writing competence in word rhetoric, clause rhetoric and text rhetoric. Tests confirmed that C-R method can enhance students-rhetoric writing ability.
uh, um, huh and mm are commonly used in people's daily conversation. Some non-vocal sounds are noticed to be used by Chinese English speakers in their conversations by retrieving SECCL (Spoken English Corpus of Chinese Learners). However, they do not use them often. The present paper, based on the retrieval of two self-built corpora relating to American and British movies, finds that the using frequencies of non-vocal sounds in America and Britain are comparatively higher than that in China. In terms of the using frequency of huh, Americans and British differ greatly, while the using frequencies of another three non-vocal sounds differ slightly. In addition, the present paper summarized the basic functions of these non-vocal sounds: answer mark, approach to assuage the embarrassment, illustration of individual's emotion, self-correction, follow-up, raising a question. The present paper can give a lesson to Chinese English speakers who relatively seldom use non-vocal sounds.
This paper addresses this issue based on much statistical data. The birth of independent colleges is due to the dramatic imbalance between the supply and demand of higher education under the popularization of higher education and the recession environment of enterprises. The geographical distribution of independent colleges is basically balanced and significantly related with the regional economic and the scale of regular higher-education institutions. The disciplinary structure of independent colleges is similar to that of the ordinary universities and adapted to the social demand for senior engineering and financial talents. The independent colleges as well as other private colleges lack a high-level full-time faculty, but the proportion of their staff is significantly less than that of universities under the ministry of education. The performances of these independent colleges held by the 211-engineering universities are generally better than that of others based on the performances of their supervisors and the assessments from the alumni website.
The way of oral test is one of the important characteristics in preparatory education in France.The paper illustrates the meaning of the oral test in preparatory education in France. It makes a study and research on the history,the form of organization, evaluation criteria, validity and reliability of the oral test and takes the ECPK as an example to make a statistical analysis, elaborates the importance of oral test in preparatory of engineering education,especially the importance of engineering education in China, provides suggestions for engineering education in China.