2014, Vol. 27 No.4
Publication date: 25 July 2014
The individual payment relief policies of social insurance in Britain include the policy of national endowment insurance regarded as payment, the policy of the payment accounted for national insurance, the policy of the national basic pension system reducing the capture to expend fixed number of year of the qualification and the policy of the government special input for the national endowment insurance fund. The social insurance payment relief policies in Japan include the payment relief of the national pension, the welfare pension, the health insurance and the care insurance. South Korea's social insurance payment relief policies include the national pension payment relief policy and the national health insurance payment relief policy. The characteristics of social insurance payment relief policies in these three countries are reflected in development trend, diversified forms and purposes of payment relief policy and role of income distribution, which have implications for the domestic construction of social security. China should establish a unified low-income groups social insurance individual payment relief and compensation mechanism, a migrant workers attending urban social insurance payment relief and compensation mechanism, and the regulation of endowment insurance individual payment relief and subsidies should be written in the Social Insurance Law of the People's Republic of China.
In recent years, Chinese government has taken certain measures to increase the financial support in minority areas and the coverage of social security system has been extended and the social security condition has been improved in these areas. In order to measure the social security situation of minority areas, the paper chooses 5 autonomous regions and 30 autonomous prefectures and compiles an index of social security of minority areas according to the public statistic data. It is found that in terms of social security, among the 5regions, 3 are better than the average condition of the whole country; among the 30 prefectures, 7 equal the average condition of the whole country, and the rest are worse than the average condition of the whole country. In the minority areas, pension insurance policy is most inefficient, and medical insurance policy the second. The policy for the minimum living allowance is comparatively efficient.
Athlete security policy not only concerns athletes' performance improvement and their career planning, but also affects the sustainable development of competitive sports. Based on the case studies of developed countries, the author summarizes five factors which would promote the effect of athlete security policy on athletes' career transition: complete legal system, comprehensive insurance categories, typical programs and projects, systematic education and vocational training, and extensive social participation. The more the athlete security policy conforms to these five factors, the better the athletes achieve career transition.
At present, China's patent protection law about Chang'e Project mainly involves the ownership system, the incentive mechanism, the management mechanism and the patent application process. However, with the reform of scientific research system of the national defense in China and the market operation of Chang'e Project, the existing patent protection system has such problems as the lack of patent protection of scientific research institutes, the insufficient protection of the inventor's rights and interests, the poor coordination of the management institutions and unreasonable patent application process. The improvement of the patent protection system of Chang'e Project must start from the explicit patent ownership, the incentive of innovation enthusiasm of the project undertakers and the improvement of the mechanism of patent management and transformation. At the same time, the improvement of the patent protection system should ensure the leading role of the aerospace patent for the national economic and social development ant it should also improve the international protection level of the Chang'e Project patent by perfecting the supporting laws of intellectual property rights protection in international cooperation.
The Montreal Convention of 1999 (MC) provides a set of uniform legal rules for carrier's liability in international air carriage. MC also stipulates five kinds of jurisdiction choice for plaintiffs and the determination of jurisdiction is one of most important factors in litigation since it always has influence on the litigation result. From the perspective of Asiana victims, a comparative analysis is made on jurisdiction rules of MC, and the conclusion is that there is little possibility for Chinese passengers to sue Asiana Airlines in the territory of US.
Due to different political, economic and historical situations, the liability systems of the air carrier in Mainland China and Taiwan have similarities as well as differences. There exist some problems in the relative regulations of flight delay. The essence of flight delay and the liability limitation are not clear. There is no legislation on the insurance of flight delay. In Mainland China, the scope of the exemption excuse is too large to protect the benefit of passengers and the collateral duty is not explicit in the regulations. This paper gives suggestions on the standard of flight delay, liability limitation of the air carrier and insurance on flight delay of Mainland China and Taiwan. It is suggested that the exemption excuses should be reduced and the collateral duty of air carrier be elaborated in Mainland China.
As the losses in this case incurred from the intentional conduct of the insured, the insurer, in principle, is relived from liability of paying proceeds pursuant to Section 2 of Article 29 of Taiwan Insurance Act which reads, "Insurer bear no obligation where losses is result from the intentional conduct of the insured". Nevertheless, the insured argued that her conduct? though intentional, is an act of performing moral obligation so that the insurer is still liable for the losses. Therefore, the issue of this case is whether the conduct the insured fall within the scope of Article 30 of the Insurance Act which provides that "The Insurer is liable for the losses incurred from the performance of moral obligation". This note introduces the "public conscience principle" from the Anglo-American Law and argued that weighing the losses incurred from the insured's injury due to donation of partial liver and the benefit of saving the life of the insured's husband, the benefit of life saving outweigh losses result from intentional conduct. Thus, the insurer still has the duty to indemnify the insured.
Approved in 2011, House Acquisition from State-owned Land and Compensation Ordinance, which is based on the assimilated regulations of The Provisions of Administrative Procedure of Hunan Province, added the content of due process to make a levy decision, cancelled the regulation of demolition decision by government, and banned violent and other illegal means to relocation. To some extent, those regulations ensure the work of levy works. However, the lack of procedures stipulated in the relocation made administrative levy in impasse. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce due process in the relocation, thus ensure fair, just and open relocations by adding mediation procedure, statement procedure, challenge system and procuratorial supervision and inspection procedures.
In view of the difference of the interpretation system, the Article 158 of the Basic Law established a mechanism of the two-track interpretation of the Basic Law. As typical cases of the Hong Kong Court of Final Appeal referred to the NPCSC, a series of cases of the right of abode in Hong Kong have shown the conflict between two different interpretation systems, and exposed the lack of restraint to the reference to NPCSC. The paper tries to perfect interpretation mechanism of the Basic Law by clarifying the division of jurisdiction between the courts of Hong Kong and the NPCSC and by establishing the restraint mechanisms to the reference to NPCSC to interpret the Basic Law.
As a new direction in the study of Marxian theory, signifying started with the critique of ideology of the Marxist philosophy. It was generalized by the Western Marxists, extended from the super structure to economic base and resulted in the emergence of Semiotic Marxism.
Academics generally believe that democracy only exists in the political sphere and democracy actually means political democracy. From the perspective of Marx's historical materialism, the paper holds the view that democracy exists not only in political sphere, but also has economic characteristics. Economic democracy is an important idea of historical materialism and a good alternative to capitalist society, which can improve the relations between people, between people and nature, thus achieve social harmony.
With the development of economic globalization and regional integration, the air transportation liberalization of the world is becoming more and more and important. With the developing mergers and acquisitions trend in the era of post-crisis caused by financial turmoil and debt crisis,there is a good opportunity to participate in and to speed up the process of aviation liberalization for the emerging economies. Based on the development effect of the developing course of air transportation liberalization and the mergers and acquisitions trend in the era of post-crisis, the article analyzes the mergers and acquisitions trend in the context of the global financial crisis and discusses the opportunity of international expansion modes of cross-border merger and acquisition of civil aviation. The results indicate that the era of post-crisis provides a good opportunity for China to accelerate its aviation liberalization. The civil aviation enterprises can expand their international aviation market of long distances transportation by using diversified strategies, thus achieve greater development in the global aviation liberalization.
The paper analyzes the reform of financial supervision system by applying a comparative method supplemented with standard analysis, empirical analysis and historical analysis. Firstly, the paper compares the financial innovation in the Anglo-American countries since the 1980s. Secondly, it compares the financial regulation reforms in terms of functions, objectives, principles and systems after the 2007 financial crisis. Lastly, the paper draws the conclusion that national financial regulatory reform must adhere to financial innovation. International community should strengthen the international collaboration of financial regulation, keeping the combination of macro-prudential supervision with micro-prudential supervision. It also should focus on monitoring systemic risk and ensure the consistence of the financial regulatory system with financial structure.
The construction of public rental needs much money and usually takes a long time, thus it can not only rely on limited financial investment, so financing becomes a bottleneck restricting the construction of public rental. At present, bank loans and project financing are two main financing models of the public rental, while PPP, REITs and other ways are rarely used. This paper introduces the traditional financing methods, focusing on the PPP and REITs. The paper summarizes the pros and cons of nine financing models and concludes that bank loans, project financing, BT, BOT, PPP, TOT, bonds, public rental REITs and ABS can pave the way for opening up social capital into the field of investment and construction of public rental channel. It is suggested that China raise housing finance though multiple channels, and seek to comply with China's specific situation of public rental financing model.
Taking letter of guarantee payable to attach assets as an example, the paper analyzes the pricing issues of short-term asset-backed securities. The paper suggests all the cash flows of letter of guarantee and payable be made as the underlying assets and risk factors be changed into the impairment factors of the value of securities through the analysis of its major risk exposures. This paper constructs a pricing model of payment guarantee securitization according to the no arbitrage principle. This model not only well describes the characteristics of guarantee payment security, but also need s no reliance on the reference price or risk rate. Using the model of CIR and Monte Carlo simulation, the simulation case of the pricing results is within the acceptable range.
Plague has an intimate relationship with humans: it not only affects the social process but also has a profound impact on people's cultural and spiritual state. The plague is an important theme of literature and many world masterpieces take plague as their background. The plague in the Middle Ages accelerated the Renaissance and the Reformation. Giovanni Boccaccio's Decameron is famous for taking plague as the background. It highlights the value of the Renaissance and the inevitability of Reformation. The 18th-century Enlightenment literature described the world with objective and rational manners. British writer Daniel Defoe's novel A Journal of the Plague Year stressed this tendency. French writer Giono's novel The Horseman on the Roof and the Colombian writer Marquez's Love in the Time of Cholera put plague and love together, the love story dazzling with the plague. In the novel The Plague written by Albert Camus, the plague has a broader symbolism and different choices when people face plague is the expression of existential philosophy.
Christian thought in The Bible has been deeply-seated in shaping western cultural tradition and Emily Bronte has made readers' psychology aesthetically close to her novel Wuthering Height by using biblical myth and literature archetypes in creative ways. The hero Heathcliff and the heroin Catherine, like Adam and Eve, have been going through the joys in Paradise Holden, the sorrows in Paradise Lost and the arduous paths in Paradise Regained. The novel drew a realistic picture of ancient human history through passionate descriptions. Today science and religion are becoming increasingly competitive and our imaginative Garden of Eden is slipping from our grasp.
Metaphor and metonymy are ways of thinking, and there is adequate linguistic evidence in support of this claim. However, the present research of conceptual metaphor and conceptual metonymy has a preference to verbal manifestations over nonverbal manifestations. This paper analyzes the nonverbal and multimodal metaphors and metonymies in the advertising movie of Chanel No 5 perfume: LOVE IS A JOURNEY and THE PERFUME STANDS FOR LOVER/LOVE, which involve the interaction of the visual mode, aural mode, olfactory mode, and tactile mode, etc. Multi-modal metaphors and metonymies contribute to the representation of the relation between cognition and persuasion in advertising.
In order to realize the vision of the engineer of the twenty-first century, US National Science Foundation assisted in the development and implementation of curricular reform in some universities. As one of the six universities funded University of Vermont (UVM) has implemented curricula reform for several years in the civil and environmental engineering department. The main purpose of this reform is to incorporate a system approach to the civil and environmental engineering programs, take full account of the integration of the ecological, social and economic interests, and develop service-learning programs which place an equal emphasis on service to the community and learning for the students. Curriculum reform improved students' understanding of the roles and responsibilities of the engineer. Incorporating system thinking and service-learning into engineering education curricula plays a significant role in engineering education reform of China.
Personal initiative is one of the key elements of university students' employability. This study applies questionnaire and focus group as its methodology and selects 732 undergraduates from Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics as the sample. The questionnaire on the personal initiative of university students consists of four dimensions: behavior patterns, learning initiative, difficulties response, and interpersonal communication. The result shows that University students' personal initiative is modest overall, while significant differences exist in personal trait variables such as gender, grade and location of their hometown. It is found that influencing factors of the students' personal initiative are learning initiative, overcoming-barriers and interpersonal communication. To improve the students' personal initiative, the paper suggests that universities should realize the importance of students' personal initiative and offer positive study environment and measures to advance their personal initiative.
Practice activities are important platforms for cultivating university students' practical abilities. Based on the existing researches and interviews between teachers and students, this paper designs a questionnaire to analyze the current practice activities of the university students. The result shows that university students are motivated in developing practical abilities. Institutions of higher education ought to design practice activities scientifically with the guiding goal, cultivating qualified students and making sure practice activities have long-term effect. Additionally, universities ought to highlight discipline features, strengthen the cross merging, conform to the tendency of internationalization, and improve the quality of practice activities, which is also necessary for training university students' practical abilities.