2014, Vol. 27 No.5
Publication date: 25 September 2014
This article first established a polynomial regression model based on a large sample network questionnaire survey, and then discussed the structure and characteristics of online political participant of China from the following four aspects: demographic characteristics, basic characteristics of using network, characteristics of online political participative behavior and attitude about the effect of online political participation. It is found that these four aspects have the following characteristics respectively. The online political participants are mainly consisted of those rational youth who have highly educated background, high incomes and high comprehensive quality. The occupational prestige in the realistic society does not match with the network voice, sometimes it even means the least network voice. Social media has become the main tool and platform for online political participation, especially microblogs which play a unique role in online rights protection. The main goal of civic online political participation is self-actualization.
In recent years, the construction of E-Government in China has made great progress. From the era of E-Government 1.0 to the E-Government 2.0, the development of E-Government has played a great role in the integration of public services and improving capacity of government management. As one of the main bodies of supply of public services, grassroots governments can ameliorate the quality of service and achieve higher efficiency by using the E-Government 2.0. However, in practice, the application of E-Government 2.0 in grassroots public service is confronted with obstacles in concept, structure, resources. To further improve the efficiency and the level of public services at grassroots, it is important to eliminate the obstacles and enhance the role of E-Government 2.0.
Based on Eco-civilization Construction Index for Chinese provinces (ECCI) and National Eco-civilization Construction Index for demonstration zones, as well as the exploration of eco-civilization at the 18th CPC National Congress, the article proposes an evaluation index for Chinese provinces, including four secondary indicators and twelve third-level indicators. A comparative analysis is carried on among the indexes. It concludes as following: the eco-civilization construction among provinces is in a state of unbalance, that is, from a low-level equilibrium or disequilibrium to a high-level equilibrium or disequilibrium. The commonality and diversity are two important indicators for the evaluation. However, it is difficult to tell how much can be achieved by economic and social efforts.
Provincial capital cities play an exemplary and leading role in Eco-civilization Construction. Scientific and reasonable assessment indexes provide right direction in Eco-civilization Construction. Three provincial capital cities,Guiyang,Hangzhou,and Nanjing,have sequentially put forward respective construction projects and relevant assessment index systems. By comparative analysis, it is found that the assessment index systems of the cities show more variety than overall similarity under the influence of subjective and objective factors. The variety suggests China has a deeper and better understanding of Eco-civilization Construction,and the construction is hampered by a lack of consensus on the assessment system. China needs to take further steps to explore the assessment system of the Eco-civilization Construction in both theory and practice.
Compensation for air crash passengers is quite complicated. So is Malaysia airlines flight MH370. Montreal convention of 1999 is the basic law for Malaysia Airlines missing flight MH370 passengers. The convention does not specify a highest amount or limits of liability for passengers' compensation. The calculation of limitations of actions depends largely on the law of the place where a court accepts the case. Although 113100 Special Drawing Rights (SDRS) is fixed, how much RMB it amounts to depends on the date it is converted. So it is in dynamic change. Not all passengers can get high compensation in plane crash cases. From the aviation accident compensation practices, compensation is much higher than the statutory amount. The compensation passengers get from insurance company for purchasing commercial insurance for themselves is totally different from the liability of airlines.
Investigation of aviation accident and compensation for damages of air crash accident are two different legal relationship. The report of aviation accident investigation can-t decide if liability for aviation accident damages exist or not, because it is neither a necessary premise nor the sole basis to confirm the liability of an accident compensation for damages. The purpose of the investigation is just to find out the cause for the accident and prevent it from happening again. The nature of the accident ascertained by the investigation report may produce certain effect on accident damages, that is, to exceed the legal restriction of accident damages. The payment receipt of the air crash compensation and a declaration about remove the responsibility which is concluded after air crash should not be affected by the report of aviation accident investigation.
After air crash accidents, aviation products liability litigation is an important way to claim high compensation for victims. The United States is the concentration of product liability lawsuits, with ample practice and more complete requirements. Aviation products manufacturers and lessors are the ones to be brought actions to take responsibility in most cases. To make them undertake products liability, plaintiff must prove aircraft or its components contain a manufacturing defect,or is defective in design,or is defective because of inadequate instructions or warnings. Meanwhile, the United States courts usually apply doctrine of forum non conveniens in aviation products liability cases to determine whether they should dismiss the case by examining and balancing private interests factors and public interests factors. Although judges' exercise of discretion may result in big differences in verdicts, some conclusions on the burden of proof responsibility and criteria of forum non conveniens can still be found by studying the Restatement of the law Third, Torts: Product Liability and relevant cases.
Unlawful interference against the international civil aviation threatens not only the safety and orderly development of international aviation industry, but also the peace and security of the whole world. In reality, the concepts of unlawful interference, terrorist activity and the unruly passenger distinguish from each other, although sharing something in common. To combat with the unlawful interference against the international civil aviation which results in personal injuries and property damages of the passengers, the third parties on the surface as well as the aviation industry, the international community, under the auspices of various international organizations, particularly of ICAO, convened a number of treaties as well as adopted a series of resolutions for this purpose. By viewing the international obligations committed by contracting states under the international conventions and the custom international law, the state responsibility is an unavoidable issue when it comes to the liability for the damages attributed to the unlawful interference.
The relationship between trade liberalization and human rights protection has been the most controversial philosophical issue in international law since the battle in Seattle. The traditional approach presumes that trade liberalization tends to promote human rights, while the critical approach emphasizes that trade liberalization will undermine the progress in human rights protection. Petersmann has developed the theory of Rights-based Trade Constitutionalism, advocating that the relationship between trade and human rights should be constitutionalized. The Trade and Human Rights Debate took place between Alston and Petersmann with the former criticizing the theory of Trade Constitutionalism which was promulgated by the latter. This debate not only indicates the complexity in the relationship between trade and human rights, but also questions on the justification of separation between the exercise of public power and the pursuit of collective purposes in global trade governance. In the context of dominant narrative about the multilateral trade system's transformation, namely "from politics to law", both parties focus on the "institutional relation" of the Trade and Human Rights Debate rather than explore the reconstruction of knowledge structure behind the institutional transformation, therefore fail to find the solution. Being a developing socialist country with the largest population and trade volume in the world, China should transcend beyond the phenomenon of the academic debate into its essence, and be aware of the grave challenge to its own ideological safety.
Mortgage of forest rights, the important link in the collective forest rights reform, is in the urgent need of theoretical support. China has set restrictions on the transfer of mortgaged real estate out of the consideration of theory and cost. As a special mortgaged real estate, the mortgage of forest rights should be transferred in a free way, for the practice of which has proved the necessity of free mortgaged real estate. It is up to the mortgagor to decide whether land and forest are mortgaged together or respectively, because land and forest are two independent real estates. The mortgage system should avoid being partial to the mortgagee to fully balance the interest.
Utilizing capitalist culture to build socialism is one of the basic issues of Scientific Socialism explored by Marx and Engels. They put forward a historical problem of how to make the transition to socialism in underdeveloped countries. Lenin interpreted the actual problem in detail. CCP combined the basic principles of Marxism-Leninism with China's reality to make a progress theoretically and practically, denying Westernization and Seclusion Policy, which provided the theoretical basis and historical experiment for building socialism thought Reform and Opening Policy in new era.
Theory on the transition period is the most important theory of Marxism. It means the period from Capitalism to the first part of Communism. This theory has been followed in China ever since the founding of the People's Republic of China. Guided by Marx's theory on the transition period, the transition theory in China in return enriched and developed this theory. The important value of the theory lies in the following: it gives a scientific orientation for the development of China, and it is the basic point of departure for the Communist Party of China to handle all problems in a long period.
The profound international and national changes and the change within the party all challenge the construction of Chinese Communist Party in the new era. The ruling party faces a long-term, complex and serious test which include the test of reform and opening up, the market economy test, the test of the external environment. Thus the implementation of the party to manage the party strictly is more arduous and urgent than ever. Under the anti-"Four Winds" and the strengthening of reform and good governance in the new situation, it is very important for the Chinese Communist Party to improve the cultivation of the party members.
Based on the ideas of centre safety inventory and lateral transport, the methods of mathematical modeling and case study have been used to discuss the inventory strategies of two-level inventory system with multiple distribution centers, the advantages and disadvantages of different inventory strategies and the effects of different parameters. The results show that the centre storage strategy is better than distributed storage strategy. Multi'stage centre storage strategy is superior to single'stage centre storage strategy. Higher service level is and greater coefficient of standard deviation is, more obvious the superiority of combination multi'stage centre storage and lateral transport strategy is. If the lead time is longer, the safety inventory should be closer to the demand point to avoid the uncertainty in lead time.
Based on the review of the development process of development zones and domestic and foreign research status of development zones evaluation theory, the paper analyzes the correlation of the major economic indexes in the 66 national economic development zones in eastern China and the provinces which they belong to. Factor analysis and cluster analysis are used to study the leading effect of national development zones on regional economic development. The results show that the national development zones have significant leading effect on the development of regional economy. It is also found that there is no significant correlation between the strength of leading effect of development zone to regional economy and the size of it. The leading effect of national development zones in Beijing, Guangdong, Fujian and Shandong Provinces are relatively lower compared with other eastern coastal provinces. The national development zones of Hebei province have not played their due role in driving the development of the regional economy.
Delexicalization is a very common language phenomenon and "thing" is considered to be one of the frequently-used delexicalized words. Chinese learners' use of "thing" was investigated using the two corpora WECCL (Written English Corpus of Chinese Learners) and NESSIE (Native English Speakers' Similarly-and Identically-promoted Essays). The results indicate that Chinese learners tend to overuse the word compared with native speakers. Meanwhile, there are a large number of improper uses of "thing" such as redundance, substitution, collocation and semantic errors. However, the frequency of the use of the word and such errors significantly declines with the improvement of the learners' language competence, which is in conformity with the development pattern of interlanguage. The overuse and improper uses of "thing" might be attributed to the learners-limited lexical competence and learning strategies as well as the effects of language negative transfer and the psychological mechanism of interlanguage.
Reception theory generally shifts the traditional concern in literary studies from the author and the text to the reader, highlighting the active participation of readers in the process of reading. This paper attempts to explore the translation of popular fiction from the perspective of reception theory through an in-depth study of two Chinese versions of The Godfather and proposes a suitable translation strategy, hoping to enhance translators' awareness of the importance of readers and thus to improve the readability of translations.
Talent-cultivation mode sets the goal and realization approach to talent cultivation. To promote the quality of professional talent training on public service administration, a new multivariate adaptive training mode is put forward. Based on the thought of competence-based education, the mode introduces the theory of competency model and investigates the graduates and their employers, teachers and students of the public administration specialty. With a focus on multivariate adaptability and competence of talent-cultivation of talents, the mode has the characteristics of open and dynamic and can promote the comprehensive competition ability of the professional talents.
It has been ten years since the concept of blended learning came out. Blended learning is now widely applied in educational institutions and enterprises all over the world. Moreover, it is found that it improved students' learning outcomes significantly. The purpose of this research is to find principal influencing factors by qualitative study. 21 university students who have personal experiences of blended learning in a Beijing college were interviewed. The research found that learning resources, learning management system, instructor's involvement, collaborative learning activities and learning support all have significant impacts on students' perceptions of blended learning and their learning outcomes.