2016, Vol. 29 No.2
Publication date: 25 March 2016
This paper analyzes three basic mechanisms of price formation, payment methods of different medical insurance schemes in America, especially the pricing mechanism. There are two conclusions: the price is formed by the bargaining between purchaser and providers, and hospitals adopt different strategies based on their bargaining power. The article considers that the negotiation is an important mechanism for the formation of China's medical service price in future; at the same time, we should improve the formation mechanism of payment standard and establish the policy environment for the price negotiation.
There are as many as 12 departments in China social security management system, which has a serious impact on a unified decision-making and management of social security undertaking. Learning from the experiences of foreign countries and according to the theory of government management and division of labor, this paper proposes to merge and unify the functions of various departments of decentralized management of social security into a complete social security super-ministry system, and construct a four-in-one system of social security management which contains legislation, administration, fund revenues and expenditures, and supervision to meet the objectives and requirements of the service-oriented government building, to achieve standardized management of social security undertakings.
Under the pressure of aging and declining population, the current social health insurance financing system in German needs reform. Introducing a single social health insurance, calculating premiums by heads, paig insurance fee according to the degree of risk are three major reform paths for German. The core of the reform is whether children and spouse who does not work still do not pay premiums and enjoy the insurance under the framework of the co-insurance system.The purpose of the reform is to change the dual track system of statutory medical insurance and private medical insurance to the monorail system of insurance of social medical treatment,and in combination with other supporting measures to convert the traditional social welfare state to modern social insurance state.
Since long-term sustainability of outer space activities is an extension concept of sustainable development in the field of outer space law, there are not only some connections but also a few differences between them. According to the juridical status of the principle of sustainable development, the principle of long-term sustainability of outer space activities should be an important principle in the law of outer space, and contains the following aspects: inter-generation fair; within-generation fair; long-term sustainable use, integration between environment and activities in the outer space. In the case of the existing outer environment worsening, emphasizing and practicing principle of long-term sustainability of outer space activities has important practical significance.Now the challenges related to the long-term sustainability of outer space activities include the issues of space debris; the increasing decrease in geostationary orbit resources; space pollution. The international community is working on the guidelines of the long-term sustainability of outer space activity guidelines which plays a key role in solving the above problems. More importantly, the principle of long-term sustainability of outer space activities should be put into the Outer Space Treaty or developed to be a generally accepted rule of customary international law so that it can play the role of legal norms.
With rapid development of the GNSS technology and the global application of GNSS, there will be a series of civil liability imposed on the GNSS service providers, including contract liability and tort liability. In accordance with the American law and judicial practice, the plaintiff could file a lawsuit again the GPS service provider in U.S.A. And from the perspective of American court, there will be a tendency to use the product liability resolving the disputes caused by GPS malfunction and defective signals. Through the analysis on the American law and practice, the author is focusing on develop the characterized Chinese liability systems to cope with GNSS malfunction and defective signals.
The vigorous development of small satellites with high functional density significantly enhanced the capacity of exploring outer space by private entities and non-space-faring nations and triggered a demand for revising the rules. National governments should issue space activities license according to the classified and categorized conditions and relax the market access requirements for small satellites programs. Third party liability insurance policy should be set on the balance of the purpose, cost, benefit and risks in small satellites programs. Registration of small satellites should be regulated according to international and national rules. Space debris mitigation should be a condition for licensing small satellites programs so that the States can bear the responsibility in space environment protection. The ITU satellite frequencies and orbits coordination procedures should be simplified to adapt to the special orbital characteristics, operating life and service type of small satellites.
Digital evidence has been recognized as a separate category of evidence under the Chinese law, but its concept as well as the unique authentication rules demand further exploration. The concept ‘digital evidence' refers to any probative data or information stored or transmitted in digital form that can be used to prove a case. Data or information, digital form, and evidence are the three key elements of this concept, which distinguish digital evidence from, in a narrow sense, documentary evidence and physical evidence. As to audio-visual material evidence, there is an overlap in-between. Under the current legal regime, the overlapping part follows the collection, preservation, presentation and authentication rules of digital evidence. The unique nature and characteristics of digital evidence give rise to challenges against the conventional evidential rules especially regarding authentication. On the international level, one can observe two trends regarding authentication rules: one is the constantly lowered threshold for formal examination, whereas the other is the increasingly strengthened substantive examination and regulations on collecting evidence. Examining foreign experience can be beneficial to constructing the Chinese rules of authenticating digital evidence.
With the rapid development of emerging information network technology, such as cloud computing, big data, mobile Internet, Internet of things, conventional network topology structure and the way to use resources come up with far-reaching transformation. Data information shoot up in the form of index, intelligent terminal evolve from individuality experience to interconnected-scene, driving real-time connectivity between people, people and things, objects and things. In the Internet era, as a type of evidence, electronic data are endowed with new connotation, its role and importance has become increasingly apparent. Compared with traditional evidence, forensics procedure and evidence rules of E-evidence have major difference. Take the application and judicial practice of E-evidence as a point of view, the article will fully implement the requirements for rules of evidentiary adjudication and explore new method for the authenticity of E-evidence.
There are no specific provisions on the authenticity judgment of electronic evidence in the existing laws of China, so that the authentication degree of the electronic evidence usually differ in different cases. This paper summarized that no unified identification standard, non-uniform of evidence form, uneven development of notary technology and identification technology are the main problems in this field through analyzing typical cases. This paper presented a method for authenticity judging of electronic evidence. The evidence should be identified from the sources firstly, then we could investigate the generation, transmission, preservation and exhibition of the electronic evidencewith advanced identification techniques and authenticity guarantee techniques by using authentication method, expert auxiliary method, comparative method and comprehensive analysis method. This method has been applied to the authenticity judgment process of different kinds of electronic evidence in the paper. This paper provides a methodological guidance for the authenticity judgment of electronic evidence in China to pursue the unity of objective reality and legal truth at the greatest extent.
With technology-promoting organizational change and deep evolution of economic globalization, emerging organization forms with hybrid characteristics have triggered a series of more complicated management issues such as property management, management control and incentive mechanism, and are challenging the traditional management thinking and methods.Over the past four decades, hybrid organizations and their governance issues caused extensive attention of the international academia circles, and have made some important research progress. However, domestic researchers have not paid enough attention to this field. Based on the relevant research literature of hybrid governance, this paper aims to make a summary and analysis on its theory origin, development logic and important conclusions, in order to promote the research development and application in China.
With the continuous development of civil aviation industry of China, airport noise problems have become increasingly prominent, the resisted awareness of residents living in the surrounding airport is also growing strongly, the implementation of airport noise charge has become a trend to solve the noise problem of the airport. In order to solve the increasing noise contradiction between airports and the surrounding residents. This article studies the pricing policy of ICAO and the EU about airport noise as well as typical airport noise charge model of the world, and on this basis proposed fee model of general noise. The model is used to conduct a case study of Guangzhou Baiyun airport, and the noise charges of different aircraft type were analyzed, the different level of fees in all kinds of aircraft type which operate in several patterns were obtained in Guangzhou Baiyun airport.
Mutton is one of the important livestock in China. In recent years, mutton price rose sharply in China because of slowed mutton supply, increased consumption, mutton sheep breeding costs and other reasons. By using relevant statistical data, this paper analyzes the impact on sheep production, meat consumption and CPI caused by rising mutton prices. The study shows the following results. First, mutton price rising would increase mutton supply, and its short-term and long-term price elasticity are 0.31 and 0.76 respectively. Second, it would increase residents' consumption expenditures, the negative impact of low-income groups and border areas inhabited by minority residents suffered greater. Third, mutton prices rising will push CPI, but its impact is limited. Based on the above results, this paper puts forward some policy recommendations. First, sheep production should be given more policy supports. Second, government should provide subsidies to lower-income groups and minority groups living in border areas. At last, strengthening price monitoring and early warning is also a must.
Interpersonal citizenship behavior, an important part of organizational citizenship behavior, refers to some mutual actions between coworkers. Studies have found that factors such as coworker relationship and network centricity all have an impact on interpersonal citizenship behavior. The main purpose of the present article is to discuss the relationship among employee mindfulness, coworker trust, interpersonal citizenship behavior and task interdependence. We developed and tested a structural model to analyze 342 valid questionnaire. The main findings are as follows. Firstly, mindfulness has significant positive impact on coworker trust. Secondly, mindfulness can affect interpersonal citizenship behavior both directly and indirectly, which means trust plays a partial meditation role between the two variables. Besides, linear-regression analysis indicates that task interdependence can moderate the relationship between trust and interpersonal citizenship behavior.
Unlike the traditional literature, The Ballad of the Sad Café tells a grotesquely love triangle between a lonely masculine woman, a feminine evil hunchback and a handsome demon. The ugliness preference in the art field is a necessity of the time. It is a phenomenon resulted from the historical changes and philosophical development in modern time. Ugliness presentation can distance the readers from the novel and awaken the reader to quest for truths. By presenting ugliness McCullers reveals the maladies of modern society and breaks up the sex stereotypes, romance stereotypes and physical appearance stereotypes. Her inclination to present ugliness is a big breakthrough in novel writing and has greatly expanded the aesthetic area of modern fiction.
Based on Appealing Structure in Reception Aesthetics, this paper makes a probe at the recreation of Appealing Space. To recreate the original appealing space, a translator should attach importance to the reconstruction of original context and semantic field in the process of adopting words and organizing sentences by thoroughly grasping the original appealing structure and target-readers reception level. The translator, based on the acceptability of his translation, can rebuild or modify the original appealing space according to readers' reception, appropriately expanding original appealing space, and meanwhile guarding against the occurrence of narrowness, mission or distortion of original appealing space.
To investigate the historical background of the Third Plenary Session of 18th Communist Party of China Central Committee, there are three different kinds of distance by time: Close perspective, Middle perspective and Long perspective. The Close perspective is the first kind of investigations to research the history of the 18 th National Congress of the Communist Party of China in the past year; the Middle perspective is the second kind of investigations to research the history of the Third Plenary Session of 11 th Communist Party of China Central Committee when the reform and opening up has been over thirty-five years, and the Long perspective is the third kind of investigations to research the history since thefounding of the People's Republic of China founded in 1949. Through the three historical perspectives, we could have an insight into the historical background of the Third Plenary Session of 18 th Communist Party of China Central Committee by multifacetedfocus and further investigation. Thus the historical position and role of it could be recognized deeply.
To enlarge the number of international students is one of the most important internationalization strategies of UK government from 1980 s, which is driven by the huge economic profit from the tuition fee. This article collected the materials and data about their international students application requirements, percentage of first and upper second class degrees awarded, student-teacher ratio and costs per FTE student during these two decades. The analysis proves that the quality standard of international students in UK today is changing. It istime to think about how to balance the students increasing speed and higher education resources and how to find a more sustainable method to make higher education develop healthily.
Focusing on role transition of teachers and shortage of teaching hours engineering college physics teaching in a small class this paper analyzed multi-role of teachers, teaching contents and mode to explore an effective way to obtain the cultivation goal of colleges. A new fusion pattern of theory and experiment was put forward from the relationship between engineering college physics and physical experiment of college, which could build the bridge from physics theory to its experiment by acquiring the multi-role teamof teachers, suitable teaching contents and open mode. Specific practice of studentsin the laboratory platforms shows that engineering college physics teaching in small class is realized.
According to the integrated teaching requirement for different grades and courses, and based on the thoughts that the course experiments are assigned in the class, the extracurricular practices are done after class, the individual courses are extended to the course group, and the important professional development stages are covered to all grades, microwave school online forum has been constructed. The columns are classified as the unit for the teaching of the main course group, production practice and graduation project units for undergraduate students, graduate information unit for graduate students, and undergraduate and graduate integrated employment and recruitment unit. Micro-blog and on-line examination system are developed. The learning and practice stages of the electromagnetic and microwave technology subject for all students in the university are covered. Based on only one online school, the students for different grades and courses can take what they need, promote communication and achieve common progress.