2016, Vol. 29 No.3
Publication date: 25 May 2016
Ecological and environmental problems have become an issue of worldwide concern. Understanding the present environmental studies of China can deepen the research and promote the protection. Based on the data collected from CNKI, the article analyzed the publication sources, researchers, research institutions, site selections, content, methods, fund supports and internationalization degrees of the 677 literature with bibliometric method. The study finds that: publication sources involve multiple subjects, and the organizers of the main journals are national associations; most researchers are young and well-educated males; colleges, universities and scientific research institutes are the main participators and cooperation between them and between colleges are the main cooperation forms; some researches are based on specific regions and the northwest region receives most concerns; content of researches involves multiple subjects, multiple problems, and is from various angles; qualitative study is mostly used and most quantitative researches use second-hand data; funds are increasing gradually and the national associations are the main fund provider and receiver; internationalization is increasing gradually, but international cooperation is still insufficient. The study also finds that there are several problems in the eco-environmental research: lack of specialized journals on environmental science with insufficient total amount of publication; the researchers' academic backgrounds are professional, but are lack of systematization and integration; the researches lack multiple participators and the cooperations among institutions are insufficient; regions with frequent and earlier environmental problems are still the focal points while those with new problems received insufficient attention; new environmental problems are ignored and the researches are macroscopical without thorough and in-depth study; empirical analysis and original data are insufficient; fund supports are still not sufficient; international cooperation and internationalization degree is still not enough. At last, this study puts forward some suggestions for the problems.
The route towards sustainable development is much more controversial than the goal itself. Too often, people with different cognition and values cannot achieve consensus on "what the problem is" and "what should be done" in pursuit of a better sustainable development model. By using the debate on farmland red line in China as a typical example, this paper attempts to demonstrate how policy discourse competes with each other at different levels and how they shape people's thinking. In this case, either land-control discourse or land-utilized discourse has its own evidence, interpretations and epistemic figures that resist from the opponent's argument. The paper finally emphasizes the importance of democratic deliberation, which may play a crucial role in challenging discursive hegemony, creating arenas for communication and facilitating consensus building to realize effective environmental governance and sustainable development.
The research of acceptance focuses on the mutual relationship between public and technology, aiming to release the potential conflict between social development and technology development through the clearance of the characteristics of public risk awareness. As a large-scale and controversial project, the construction of nuclear power plant tends to trigger NIMBY conflict. Hence, public acceptance plays an important role in the feasibility of developing the nuclear power projects. Based on the method of AHP, this paper tries to structure a public acceptance model in peripheral nuclear power plant area, and analyzes the public acceptance in Taohuajiang nuclear plant of Hunan province. It shows that Taohuajinag nuclear plant shares a high score in public acceptance ratio, and stands in the low risk of NIMBY conflict. But, there is still much room to improve in the perspective of personal health level and democratic protection.
This paper applies the DEA ratio model to calculate the environmental efficiency of Chinese provinces from 2005 to 2012. The results show: the pollutants significantly reduce the average efficiency of each region, so the efficiency evaluation without considering pollutants is not scientific; the environmental efficiency of the western region is the highest, followed by the eastern region and the middle region is the lowest. At the same time, this paper uses the multiple regression model to analyze the factors which affect the environmental efficiency, and finds that the AGDP, external trade and population density have a significantly positive effect on environmental efficiency; In contrast, the proportion of the second industry and the number of patents have a significantly negative impact on the improvement of environment efficiency; Investments in industrial pollution control don't have an obvious influence on environmental efficiency. Finally, some advices have been given based on the empirical research.
Any legal system contains breach of obligation under its responsibility system. To ensure one party can effectively obtain indemnity, the law established the system of damage compensation. The domestic civil law in China sets that if there are damage facts and the facts have causal relationship with the harmful consequences, there should be damage compensation liability. International law established the international responsibility which proposes that both international wrongful acts and international law non-forbidden actions should bear international liability for damage compensation by means of repristination or compensation. In outer space law, damage compensation can be found mainly in the principle norms of Outer Space Treaty and the specific provisions of Liability Convention. The present damage compensation system has problems such as scattered treaty provisions, vaguely-defined terminology, lack of legislation in private activity, unclear choices among treaties, etc. The completion of damage compensation mechanism of outer space should start with the unification of outer space treaties, revising regularly the outer space legislation. The definition of damage, launching states, space objects should be further clarified and privatization of outer space activity legislation should be increased to make the alternative application among treaties of damage compensation more clear.
For their full operational capability, the European Union (EU) Global Navigation Satellite Systems, Galileo and EGNOS, have to rely upon Ground Sensor Stations (GSS) for the monitoring of navigation signals received from satellites and for the transmission of data to Galileo Control Centres through public networks. Some of the GSS will be installed in non-EU countries. Naturally, for these stations, the EU would like to maintain, inter alia, the inviolability of the premises: facilities free from all types of radio interference, hacking and eavesdropping attempts; the right to use codes; the privileges accorded to diplomatic personnel, communications and documents. The legal analysis of this problem has been based on the applicability of the 1945 United Nations (UN) General Convention on the Privileges and Immunities, the 2004 UN Convention on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, as well as on international customary law. Consideration has been given to the legal personality of the EU, to the nature of the activities performed by GSS in order to assess EU immunity from jurisdiction or immunity from execution.
In May 2014, the Legislative Affairs Office of the State Council P. R. China issued the Radio Administration Regulation (Amendment Draft) (a draft for invitation of recommendation), which specifically stipulates that radio transmission and satellite communication shall be protected by such regulation, which brings out new issue for the criminal law. Article 288 of PRC Criminal Law stipulated crimes of disrupting regulation order of radio transmission; however, the establishing standards for this crime are too high, thus this article has not been applied in judicial practices ever since it has been passed. If Criminal Law wants to function well to protect radio transmission and satellite communication, the legislative department must amend Article 288 according to the actual needs, thus to make Article 288 go out of the "obsolete" dilemma.
The theory of natural law has suffered a serious inner crisis before the attack from legal positivism. It lays the foundation for the rise of legal positivism. This paper attempts to explore the inner logic of the theory of natural law with an analysis of the "nature" and "reason" of Hobbes' ideology from the perspective of evolution of ideas on nature from the ancient Greek to modern times. It also analyzes the argument of religion in Leviathan, revealing the disruptive strike against the basis of traditional theory of natural law. Accordingly it establishes Hobbes' status as the theory pioneer of legal positivism.
GDP, GDP per capita, national wealth and wealth per capita are often used to measure China's economic position in the world. The paper uses these variables of world major countries dominated in dollars to evaluate the international comparison position of China's economy from the perspective of state and time dimensions by using PPP from the ICP 2011 as the currency conversion factor. The findings are as followed: China's GDP ranks first, up to 17.6 trillion dollars, 101.1% of the GDP of USA. However, GDP per capita, household wealth and wealth per capita are very small, only 21%、30.8% and 7.4% of the corresponding ones in USA and rank more than the 90th, 3rd and more than 60th respectively worldwide. Financial wealth of Chinese household is much less than that of USA and Japan. GDP per capita in 2013 in China was similar to that of USA in 1941. Not until the middle of the century can China be able to possibly reach the current economic level of the developed countries, such as USA and Japan. Though China ranks first in terms of economic size, GDP per capita is very low, especially the consumption per capita which is even much lower. So China is still a developing country. To solve the problem, China should, first of all, ensure steady growth and set "benefiting the people" as the ultimate goal of China's economic development.
After joining the WTO, China is becoming more and more important in the world economy. Based on inter-country input-output tables, the paper recalculated the trade balance between China and other countries and regions through global value chain (GVC). The paper decomposes China's import and export trade and comparatively analyzes the degree of involvement of other countries in GVC. The results show: under the new calculation method, the trade surplus between China and other countries such as USA is not as large as what the traditional trade statistics shows, which was overestimated by 25% on average. Through the international comparison, it is found that China's GVC participation rates in 1995-2009 show a rising trend year by year, while countries such as USA and Japan are on the decline.
The World Bank recently published China's Purchasing Power Parities (PPPs) based on the survey data of China participating in 2011 round of the International Comparison Program (ICP). China's PPP is 3.506 RMB per USD and Price Level Index is 70% of the world average. This paper first analyzes the international gaps of the China's price level, studies on the influence factors, and finally discusses the limitations of the ICP data, method and results. Research shows that China's price level is low compared with main countries in the world but under the influence of multiple factors, the price level in China is on the rise and the international gap has narrowed. From a long-term point of view, the price level in China withstands the pressure rise. It is suggested that the inflation expectation be controlled and the exchange rate of RMB be stabilized to ensure that the rise in the price level does not go beyond the normal range of economic development level of China.
Capital stock is a very important variable in macroeconomic study and policy formulation. In the process of estimating capital stock, capital depreciation rates of core variables play a key role. The thesis mainly discusses the estimation of depreciation rate of fixed capital of 33 industries in China from 1981 to 2011, using production function method which is more scientific than fixed depreciation rate in that it can better reflect the industry situation. Perpetual inventory method is then used to estimate the capital stock of different industries each year on the basis of the resulting depreciation rates. Horizontally speaking, the results show that there are large differences in building capital stocks and equipment capital stocks of different industries, with more noticeable differences in building capital stocks. Longitudinally speaking, these two kinds of capital stock show an obvious growth trend. The result of estimation is consistent with the present domestic economic situation and characteristics of industries, so they, to some extent, can reflect the macroeconomic situation and characteristics of industry structure in China.
According to the characteristics of innovative small and medium enterprises, with the market environment as the starting point, this paper develops twenty three-level index systems for the evaluation of the financing ability of innovative small and medium enterprises. The paper works out the relative weight of each index by using analytic hierarchy process, and makes an empirical study on the relevant data of the annual reports in 2014 of twenty innovative small and medium enterprises from the Shenzhen Stock Exchange. The evaluation results show that the analytic hierarchy process can well be used to assess and classify the financing ability of innovative small and medium enterprises.
Cultivating outstanding talents of science is a complicated systematic project as well as a national strategic plan for the development of higher education. With the development of internationalization of higher education,it has been assigned richer connotation. The paper uses Hualuogeng Class of Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics as an example and puts forward some suggestions for the cultivation of outstanding science talents through the building of international curriculum system, the establishment of science innovation platform and the support of international cooperation.
In order to achieve the aim of cultivating international talents, the model of Sino-foreign cooperation in running schools was utilized by Sino-French Engineering School of Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics. One of the most important ways is the innovation of the curriculum system. This paper tries to modify the course experience questionnaire employed to investigate the students in Sino-French Engineering School and other schools. The investigation finding shows that students of Sino-French Engineering School are more satisfactory with the curriculum than ordinary college students. But there is still room for further improvement in terms of what the student can gain from curriculum and academic burden.