2017, Vol. 30 No.3
Publication date: 25 May 2017
The research on theories is essential to advance the People's Congress system with the times. In order to deepen the theoretical research on the People's Congress system and clarify the basic concepts, categories, and principles of the People's Congress system, this article discusses some important basic theoretical issues, including the concepts of the People's Congress system in broad and narrow senses, the People's Congress system as the fundamental political system of China, ‘unity of legislature and administration’ for the People's Congress system, the People's Congress as a supervisor and supervisee, and the relationship between the People's Congress and the ruling party.
The article applies the "word score" method of automated content analysis to the study of the ‘deputy proposals’ submitted by N city People's Congress (PC) deputies. The aim is to evaluate the quality of deputy-voter contact. The data illustrates that local PC deputies actively responded to local people's opinions and demands; however, a lack of direct contact is also witnessed. Eventually, the study testifies the methodological availability in the study of PC related texts. The automated content analysis has massive advantages in reducing time and material costs, offering a brilliant chance for PC researchers to create a national wide database of deputy-voter contact.
In order to explore the executive-legislative relations in Beijing, this article discusses the roles of the Beijing Municipal People's Congress (PC) and government in various legislative stages by collecting and analyzing the empirical data from the official website of the Standing Committee of Beijing Municipal PC. The findings show that Beijing Municipal PC hasn't achieved its guiding function in the legislative process due to the high ratio of ‘official’ and part-time deputies, the tendency of administrative departmentalization and the lack of legislative procedure effectiveness. However, the empirical data shows that, in order to keep the People's Congress system advancing with the times, Beijing Municipal PC is enhancing its independence through the adjustment of deputies' structure, in-advance legislative intervention and improvement of substantial deliberation.
Effective examination and supervision over governments' full-covered budget is a cornerstone to standardize the exercise of administrative power and ensure the transparency of budget decisions. It is also the focus of the Eighteenth National Congress of Chinese Communist Party as well as the new budget law. However, there are still a lot of problems to be clarified both in theory and in practice. This article firstly teased out the connotation of full-covered budget review and supervision; secondly, based on the empirical research on China's Provincial People's Congresses' budget supervision exploration in recent years, this paper found that problems, such as fuzzy location of responsibilities, lag of current rules, unbalanced budget transparency among four budget books, and decentralization of budget allocation power, still exist, although great progress has been made in this field. Therefore,it is necessary for future reforms to treat public responsibility as the ultimate goal, and then promote the practice exploration from multiple latitudes, including improvement of cognition, amendments to laws and regulations, expansion of supervision ability, scientific and rational budget preparation, and cultivation of deputies enthusiasm. These will contribute to more effective full-covered budget examination and supervision for Provincial People's Congresses.
In order to implement "The Charity Law", it is necessary to have a profound knowledge of the law, clarify its ambiguous points and overcome its problems. In order to overcome these deficiencies in charity meaning, charitable trust, charity information disclosure, charity service, charity investment, charity tax and international charity, it's necessary to amend the law or give a judicial interpretation to it so as to build a complete set of legal system.
Charity fundraising may infract donors' privacy in the circumstances of the information disclosure, information sharing with other charitable or commercial organizations. These three kinds of circumstances are different in the juridical basis and legal relationship. The information disclosure involves conflicts among donors' privacy, free speech and the right to know of the public. The information sharing among charitable organizations involves conflicts between the interest of charitable organizations and the donors' privacy. Besides, the information sharing between charitable organizations and commercial institutes involves the problem of the fundraising measures. Now, China has not laid down donors' privacy protection regulations concerning charity fundraising. This situation is unfavorable for the protection of the donors' rights and interests, and also for the healthy development of the charitable industry. Therefore, in order to solve this problem, China shall study this division as soon as possible, and introduce the Opt-in/Opt-out regulations and create the related information-administration authority. Meanwhile, the first infringement and secondary infringement should be distinguished. For the secondary infringement, the protection directory rules should be introduced, and specialized authority for privacy protection should be established.
The system of charities affirmation was established in Charity Law in 2016. Charities affirmation is administrative confirmation in nature. Affirmed charities have the rights of identification, application for donation invoice, qualification approval of the pre-tax deduction pro bono donations,and application for public charity fundraising.All NPOs can apply for charities affirmation. The charity committee should be created to discern charity nature of the appliers. The affirmation standards of charities require that the appliers be a corporation, aim at charity, and fulfill the requirements of expense and administrative fee, with no purpose of profit return. At present, the law on charities affirmation still has deficiencies and needs supplementing in practice.
The duty of care is an important part in the duties of higher management of charitable organizations. It demands that the higher management of charitable organizations exercise such care and skills in managing charitable organizations as a cautious, reasonable man manages his own affairs. Firstly, the article summarizes the basic connotation of the duty of care and analyzes it from the angle of the legal principle; secondly, it combines the advanced experience learnt from Britain and the U.S.with the existing state of affairs and the actual demands of the duty of care of higher management of charitable organizations in China; finally,proposals are provided on perfecting the duty of care of higher management of charitable organizations in China, to provide proposals as follows: to be clear the content and measurement of the duty of care of higher management of charitable organizations on the legislation; to improve the quality of regulatory systems of the duty of care of higher management of charitable organizations; to Improve accountability system of higher management of charitable organizations.
Constructing China under the rule of law is the inevitable choice for the nation's modern civilization and scientific legislation is the foundation of the rule of law. The important role of law is to reduce the uncertainty of the system and improve the social order. Entropy is a mature and important concept to describe, analyze and calculate the order degree of a system, which has been successfully applied in multiple disciplines. To investigate the legislative situation in China under the guidance of entropy, the paper puts forward four scientific legislative proposals: simplifying the legislative level and clarifying legislative authority; setting up legislation quotas and promoting professional legislation; making the normalization of legislation,amendment,abolition and interpretation of law;learning the theory and technology from mature engineering disciplines, such as test coverage analysis, risk analysis and entropy value method to form an interdisciplinary approach. In this paper, a new entropy principle perspective on legislative issues is proposed, which can be extended to the whole judicial system. The proposals in this paper would guide and promote the rational and orderly development of the construction of the rule of law in China.
Since 1978, China has enjoyed rapid economic growth and become the world second economy but subprime crisis not only brought great effect to the economy of the world but to China's economy as well. Though China's economy showed a brief growth resumption through a strong stimulus, a gradual decline appeared soon afterwards. In 2014, China's GDP growth rate was 7.4%, compared with the rapid growth before the economic crisis, there is a big gap. With the application of the seasonal adjustment model and Hodrick-Prescott filter analysis, the paper finds that China's long-term economic growth rate has a downward trend. This paper further argues that the basic factors of China's downward economic growth rate is the declined driving force in consumption, investment and net exports and the direct factor is the descending real estate industry. To maintain long-term and stable growth of economy, the paper suggests that China should encourage population growth, lower taxes and technological innovation.
Based on BSC's hierarchical objectives and key performance indicators evaluation, this article constructed a comprehensive budget management performance evaluation index system of universities with seven dimensions of performance, namely teaching, research, budget execution, finance, resource allocation, society and development. And a nonlinear model was established by using entropy method to determine the index weight, correcting index score based on the symbiosis and calculating evaluation values based on the synergism. The comprehensive budget management performance evaluation of a university in Beijing from 2009 to 2013 showed that the university has a comprehensive budget management to maintain a good level of performance. To be specific, the teaching dimension has the best performance, followed by the budget execution, whereas the financial performance is not so good.This result is basically consistent with the actual situation of the school. This showed that the established comprehensive budget management performance evaluation index system of universities is scientific and rational, with an objective and effective evaluation method, and true and reliable evaluation results; and the index system can be promoted for wide application so as to improve the overall comprehensive budget management performance of universities in China.
Voice behavior is one of the main forms of employees participating in the management. Under the Chinese context, the impacts of employee's promotive voice and prohibitive voice on individual task performance and contextual performance are studied from the perspective of conservation of resources. On this basis, a local element, supervisor-subordinate guanxi, is introduced as the moderator. A questionnaire survey is carried out of 269 Chinese employees, and the structural equation model and hierarchical regression are used to analyze the sample data. It is shown that both the promotive voice and prohibitive voice have positive influence on the task and contextual performance. Guanxi plays a positive moderating role between the prohibitive voice and the two types of performances, but has no effect on the relations between the promotive voice and both performances.
As advanced composite materials are widely used in many areas such as aerospace industry, ship transportation, building and energy, the costs, to which the manufacturing cost contributes the maximum proportion, have become the key limitation for better and wider application of composite materials. Therefore, it is very important to make a rational analysis of, manage and control the manufacturing cost of composite components. Using the manufacturing process-based cost modeling (MPCM), taking a typical composite component-blade as the example, the constituent elements of composites manufacturing costs are analyzed in detail, and the cost relationships of composites components are built. The study reveals that in the manufacturing process of composite components, the manufacturing cost analysis based on MPCM model, can effectively identify the low-efficient parts of the manufacturing cost, control the manufacturing cost of composite and increase the product profit, with the combination of rational optimizing design of producing process.
Just as literary criticism of ethics indicates, literature is the product of morality, "literature is the unique expressional form of ethical concepts and moral life in a specific period of history, and literature is essentially art of ethics".In his fiction, Kurt Vonnegut, the renowned American contemporary fictionist, deeply concerned about human existence and fate in the postmodern times or the post-industrial society or late capitalism, insists on utilizing the ethic of ecological postmodernism that recognizes differences, promotes mutual tolerance, and harmonious co-existence of all the component parts of the universe, for establishing ecological social ideology, constructing extended families that can save human beings, and resuming the interconnection and wholeness of man and man, man and the world. Vonnegut further emphasizes the ethical spirit of ecological postmodernism for man living in the agglomerate culture, aiming at reconstructing a democratic, harmonious, and ecological human society in which all lives care for and love each other. The postmodern ethic that runs through Vonnegut's fiction has an important epistemological value and realistic meaning for promoting human beings to advance ceaselessly towards a healthy, ecologically sustainable society.
The American confessional poet John Berryman audaciously constructs a male-dominated world of eroticism and sensuality in his poetry. His erotic poetics not only demonstrates the loss of life values such as self-split and sexual sadism, but also is embedded with a profound sense of guilt, which derives from the inner conflict between his intense desire for erotic experience and the deep-rooted religious creeds and moral codes. Berryman develops severe depression in the continuing conflict between the body and the soul. Unable to obtain salvation by confessing to God, he eventually commits suicide. Berryman's self-eroticism goes through the vicissitude from repression to explosion, and finally to cessation. His erotic poetics reveals the deep, dark, and convoluted desires in the human psyche while sounding the alarm for the erotically charged modern society.
Through the "Questionnaire on Happiness of PhD Students" sent out to and withdrew from a total of 784 PhD students majoring in Engineering, Science, Management, Law and Art in Beihang University, the actual status of these PhD students' well-being has been obtained. A range of factors existing in the motivation and reality of pursuing doctoral degree which may lead to PhD students' low level of happiness have been analyzed. Based on this investigation and years' work experience in ideological and political education of PhD students, this article has put forward several suggestions from the perspectives of ideal and beliefs, academic research, communication between students and teachers, career planning and so on to improve the level of PhD students' happiness.
The process of the massification of higher education in China is dominated by the government. As a result, oversupply and undersupply of higher education both exist in China. This paper gives an analysis of oversupply and undersupply of higher education based on three aspects of hiberarchy of higher education in China from 2004. Research shows that the proportion of different levels of higher education is still not harmonious in the overall level, especially the seriously squeezed state of the proportion of junior college students. The hierarchy of discipline level is constantly adjusting towards a reasonable direction. The release of Made in China 2025 makes engineering education face more challenges. In this area, the proportion of different levels needs to adjust gradually, inclining to high-level innovative talents and high technology applied talents. These changes of hiberarchy have revealed the problems of oversupply and undersupply of the different levels of higher education in China.
The educational function of museums has been gradually attached importance to with the booming development of university museums.From the perspective of field theory, the paper holds the view that university museums of cultural capital as the center should be completed from the point of culture education if they want to further strengthen cultural development of their own. The characteristics of culture education concreted to university museum fields include the immersing atmosphere, the silent and quiet environment, the exemplary advantage, and the successful effect. Based on the above typical traits, university museums should spread knowledge and cultivate students by hosting high-level exhibitions, constructing cultural activity platforms, achieving assisted teaching and encouraging volunteering practice.