2020, Vol. 33 No.4
Publication date: 25 July 2020
As an important part of the new era thought of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics, people-centered development has its own logic of creation: the inheritance of the ancient people-oriented thought is its historical logic; and the development of the people's subjective thought of the classic writers of Marxism is its theoretical logic and also its realistic logic to adhere to the supremacy of the Communists. The people-centered development concept has profound connotations. From the perspective of development purposes, it insists on developing for the people; from the perspective of development momentum, it insists on developing based on the people; from the perspective of developing fundamental values, it insists on the developing results shared by the people.
Xi Jinping's important exposition on ideological work is based on Xi Jinping's adherence to the basic theory of Marxist ideological work and a profound summary of the long-term accumulated valuable experience of our party's leadership in ideological work, especially the fresh experience and the subsequent scientific theory created since the 18th CPC National Congress. Xi Jinping's important exposition on ideological work is based on the actual situation of work, as it accurately grasps the requirements of the development of the times, and has made a profound analysis and scientific response to the current situation, maximum variables, external challenges, and ability panics facing the current ideological work. In this process, Xi Jinping's expositions constantly highlight the distinctive theoretical characteristics of the dialectical unity of world outlook and methodology, of inheritance and innovation, of party and people, and of struggle and guidance. Therefore, it is the fundamental basis for the party to strengthen ideological work in a new historical direction.
The reform of ideological and political theory courses in the new era should not only focus on specific teaching links such as teacher quality and teaching methods, but also pay attention to breakthrough in the curriculum construction vision and innovation of curriculum system at the top-level design. Meanwhile, the reform should reposition the teaching concept and training goals with the "profound changes unseen in a century", promote curriculum teaching from "identity education" to "ability training", and shape students' ability to "approach the center of the world stage". The reform should also expand the curriculum system of the four compulsory courses and improve the teaching contents of ideological and political theory courses by strengthening the construction of ideological and political elective courses. By reforming the cultivation of graduate students majoring in Marxist theory, this reform need to expand the knowledge horizon, international horizon and historical horizon of future ideological and political teachers.
In the new era, General Secretary Xi Jinping has fully and accurately grasped the changes in China's basic national conditions and major social contradictions by further enriching and developing the Party's mass line. His important exposition on the scientific connotation of the mass line in the new era can be summarized as follows: all serve for the masses to solve new contradictions that meet the needs of the people for a better life; all rely on the masses to unite the Chinese forces to realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. From the masses, thoroughly implement the people-centered development thought; to the masses, firmly seek happiness for the people.
Xi Jinping's socialist ideology with Chinese characteristics in the new era is the fundamental guidance for party building in colleges and universities in the new era. To realize the comprehensive leadership of the party in the education work relies on the strong organization system. Party organizations in colleges and universities have their own characteristics. Therefore, to strengthen the political function of party organizations and improve the organizational strength of the party branches in colleges and universities are the fundamental work of party building and the significant guarantee for colleges and universities to implement educational policy of the party in training talents for the party and the country. However, party branch building in colleges and universities still have the "last mile" issue. On the basis of combing and summarizing the theoretical and practical problems related to the construction of the party branch in colleges and universities in the new era, and drawing on the actual case of B university, the paper summarizes the relevant theories and realistic issues of party branch building in colleges and universities in the new era, and proposes the systematic thinking and building route of persisting in issue orientation, systematic design, overall advancing and continuous deepening to provide the beneficial method to enhance the party branch building in colleges and universities in the new era.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) and one of its core technologies, machine learning, have been widely utilized with the coming of the fourth industrial revolution. Although AI is playing increasingly more important roles in improving public management efficiency and the quality of decision making, public managers need to fully recognize the challenges AI is imposing on humanities and the relationship between government and society. Public management is a political process, which constrains the application of AI technology at the same time. By analyzing an case utilizing AI in decision making in the public sector, this paper illustrates the challenges AI technologies may experience and its threats toward public values, emphasizing the necessity for public managers to fully recognize and prepare the accompanying risks and uncertainty.
The enterprise of mass organization is an important part of the party's cause. Mass organization is an important part of the national governance system, which has institutional advantages such as "close ties with the masses" "people-centered" "adherence to reform and innovation and advancing with the times". The digital mass organization follows the theoretical logic:technological progress promotes the social change; new social form triggers the adjustment and change of the organization form, and ultimately affects the theoretical logic of the organization's function. In order to better realize its political and social function,the digital mass organization will promote the comprehensive "information" and "networking" of the mass organizations'work, the "intelligent" and "precision" of its services, and the "de-hierarchical" and "flattening" of the organizational structure. Facing the "digital earth" which increasingly "networked" and "data-based", the construction of digital mass organization is not only an important part of the digital China strategy, but also closely related and isomorphic with the comprehensive deepening of the reform of mass organizations in the new era. At the same time, the construction of digital mass organization will also help reshape the party's social integration process in the information age. The construction of digital mass organization should be promoted by integrating digital government construction, enhance data sharing within mass organization, demand-oriented and participating in social governance based on scenarios. The construction of digital mass organization promotes the governance capabilities of mass organization to a new stage with digital form as the basic feature, so as to better transform the advantages of mass organization systems into governance efficiency.
At present, the new generation of information technology, represented by artificial intelligence, quantum information, mobile communication, Internet of things and blockchain, is accelerating its breakthrough application in various fields, constructing the map of global innovation and reshaping the structure of the global economy. As the next generation of global credit authentication and value Internet basic protocol, blockchain has attracted more and more attention from the governments of various countries. Xi Jinping, general secretary of the CPC central committee, pointed out that the ability to use and manage blockchain technology should be enhanced, so that it can play a bigger role in building a powerful cyber country, developing the digital economy and facilitating economic and social development. In governance of corruption, anti-corruption government departments can use blockchain technology, and build a system of corruption governance based on citizen participation, with the distributed billing, tamper-resistant, intelligent contracts and other technical advantages, to achieve public assets traceable and government information publicity, assist audit supervision and punishing mechanism, thus advancing the transparent government construction.
Corruption has negative externalities, especially in the environmental arena. Based on 35 SSCI empirical research articles from 1991 to 2018, this study sorts out the relationship between government corruption and effect of environmental policy, particularly focus on its causal dynamics. The study shows that in addition to the direct impact of corruption on effect of environmental policy, scholars also pay attention to the mediation and moderator variables such as per capita GDP, per capita income, environmental policy quality, legal norms, and civic participation. Further analysis finds that citizen participation is conducive to enhance the effect of environmental policies in the more developed countries and regions. Countries and regions with relatively low economic development, the quality of environmental policy itself and the effect of government governance are more important. In order to improve environmental quality, decision-makers have to take appropriate measures based on the level of economic development and institutional background of each country on the basis of commitment to controlling corruption and improving environmental regulations. Understanding these research fields and their characteristics is essential for future research on environmental policy effects.
Collective corruption has become a prominent feature of corruption in China. The proportion of collective corruption in corruption cases investigated in recent years has been increasing. How to effectively manage collective corruption has become a prominent issue in China's current anti-corruption process. The development of collective corruption is accompanied by the game process, which is reflected in the stages of generation, diffusion and differentiation of collective corruption. Therefore, the author combined the theoretical model to analyze the above game process, gradually explored the evolution mechanism of collective corruption, and suggested to strengthen collective corruption governance from the aspects of corruption investigation rate, restriction and supervise of power, incentive mechanism and whistleblower protection system.
Artificial intelligence has unique advantages and good prospects in discipline inspection and supervision, so it is imperative to promote the deep integration of artificial intelligence and surveillance. The introduction of artificial intelligence technology has brought new changes to the field of supervision which promote "isolated island" supervision to open data sharing, accelerate the sample-based supervision to the panoramic reduction of supervision, stimulate the result supervision to process supervision and early warning, and foster extensive accountability to seamless supervision. Intelligent supervision requires data-based supervision elements, algorithmic supervision process and predictable supervision results. However, intelligent supervision still faces the fetters of "digital trap", the absence of ethical reflection, the lack of system guarantee, the scattered application of intelligent technology, and the scarcity of intelligent professionals. Therefore, in order to avoid the risk of "technology Leviathan", intelligent supervision needs to seek solutions from the aspects of technology domestication, human-computer intelligence, development planning, and talent construction and so on.
In recent years, mergers and acquisitions related to military technology production and R&D in the United States have become more and more frequent. What is the impact of mergers and acquisitions on military technology innovation? Combining the knowledge-based view with the characteristics of national defense industry, this paper proposes the possible influence mechanism of mergers and acquisitions activities of national defense enterprises on their military technological innovation. Through the empirical study of eleven large defense enterprises in the United States, it is found that technology mergers and acquisitions have a positive effect on the performance of military technological innovation of defense enterprises, but the degree of influence decreases gradually; non-technology mergers and acquisitions have no significant impact on the performance of military technological innovation in the short term, but have a negative impact in the long term; the absolute knowledge scale and relative knowledge scale of the target party has non-linear and negative impact on the performance of military technological innovation, respectively.
The ethical values of the online car-hailing is to promote the development of shared ethical relations, promote the development of the relationship of green consumer ethics, and promote the generation of ethical relationships of trusting strangers. Meanwhile, the online car-hailing also has great impact on the existing ethical relationship and brought some new moral issues, such as destroying the ethical relationship of consumers' equal consumption, increasing traffic congestion, and thus reducing travel convenience and the subsequent sense of well-being. The business method of mobile phone orders also destroyed the driving ethics. As the operational mechanism has brought about crimes. The resolution of the ethical issues of the online car-hailing requires the joint efforts of government departments, software companies, operators, car owners and passengers. First, the government must fulfill its own administrative responsibilities. Second, the software company should optimize the online car-hailing software system to eliminate hidden dangers. Third, the government departments, software companies and operators should have clear responsibilities, strengthen their management, and severely punish various illegal or immoral activities. Fourth, passengers should raise their awareness of prevention and ensure the safety of their lives and property.
The cotton Total Factor Productivity (TFP) was measured and the impact of target price subsidy policy on cotton TFP in Xinjiang was evaluated based on DEA-Tobit approach. The results show that the cotton TFP in Xinjiang was increased during 2014—2017 period, and the technological progress was the main driving factor; there are big difference among South, North and East Xinjiang in cotton TFP; the target price subsidy had a significant effect on the cotton TFP in Xinjiang; The target price subsidy enhances cotton TFP by affecting the pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency,but has no effect on the technological progress; subject to the farmer's funds and resource endowment, the area subsidy has no effect on the scale efficiency; the regional economic development, household production scale, and net profit have significant positive impacts on TFP and technological progress. It is suggested that the target price policy optimization in the future can be considered to convert some subsidies into green box policies, such as supporting farmland infrastructure, land transfer, social services, etc., to solve the short-board problem in the promotion of cotton TFP, and to promote the transformation and upgrading of cotton production in Xinjiang.
With the development of civil aviation transportation industry, the volume of dangerous goods air transportation and unsafe events are increasing. Thus, it is critical to reduce dangerous goods unsafe events. In order to reduce the probability of unsafe events for dangerous goods more effectively, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to establish the dangerous goods source assessment system for air transport of dangerous goods according to the influencing factors of 2010—2017 dangerous goods event statistics. The weight of each factor is determined through the dangerous goods source assessment system, so that as the importance of each factor to the dangerous goods source of air transport is also determined. The analysis of the dangerous goods source assessment system of air transportation shows that the freight-general cargo transportation and class 9 dangerous goods-lithium batteries are two important dangerous goods sources that affect the air safety transportation of dangerous goods. In addition, the corresponding preventive measures for the two important sources of dangerous goods are given to provide guidance for the safety management of dangerous goods air transportation, which is of great value for effectively controlling the probability of accidents and improving the level of safety management.
The Fifth Jurisdiction is an important basis for determining the courts of international air transport cases. The Fifth Jurisdiction of the 1971 Guatemalan City Protocol was the predecessor of the Fifth Jurisdictional of the 1999 Montreal Convention. There were heated controversies in the process and the subsequent application process of the formulation of the Fifth Jurisdiction. From the perspective of balancing the interests between passengers and carriers, and the necessity of the existence of the Fifth Jurisdiction, it is concluded that the criticisms on the Fifth Jurisdiction by all parties is debatable. As the criticism were made on the basis of combining advantages and disadvantages of the Fifth Jurisdiction by way of logic analysis and example analysis. In order to determine the specific court figured out by the Fifth Jurisdiction, this study adopted the legal interpretation method of analysis and research. The results show that the Fifth Jurisdiction should apply the theory of "point of narrow definition". At the same time, due to the incomplete protection of passenger rights and interests of relevant laws in China, the Fifth Jurisdiction is worthy of reference in China's laws; however, needs appropriate modification.
By comparing Max Müller's original texts on "mythology is a disease of language" with Zhang Taiyan's "Illustration of Literature" and Zhou Zuoren's relevant essays, this paper reveals several key features of indirect translation of Max Müller's idea. Generally speaking, as a philologist, Zhang Taiyan embraces Max Müller's idea. Meanwhile, Zhang Taiyan creatively misunderstands the logic in this idea. Although, from the perspective of a pioneering mythologist, Zhou Zuoren reveals weaknesses in this idea, he is unaware of Max Müller's insight into the metaphoric nature of language and the evolution of language giving rise to misunderstandings of words' original meaning(s). Thus Zhou Zuoren draws on Evolutionary Anthropology, discarding Max Müller's theory of mythology. Zhou and Zhang's indirect translation not only reflects the interdisciplinar and multi-dimensional scope of "mythology is a disease of language", but also illustrates a mixed feature of indirect translation of western scholarship—combining misunderstanding with innovation—in the late Qing Dynasty and early Republic of China.
As a masterpiece of internationalist writing, Kazuo Ishiguro's novel The Buried Giant exposes, on the basis of memory, the dilemma of the individual and national identity in the mist of amnesia. By rethinking the historical events, Kazuo Ishiguro reconstructs the identity through the fragmental memory, and expresses his literary ethical reflection on the human predicament of existence in the process of memory, amnesia and forgiveness. In this way, Kazuo Ishiguro shows his humanistic concern about a community of shared future for mankind in the context of globalization.
Enhancing research ability is the core requirement for cultivating postgraduates. The cultivation of art postgraduates is oriented by social needs, which reflects the diversified needs of the society for art talents, and is the inevitable result of the social development to a certain stage. The social changes in the new era put forward new requirements for art postgraduates' research ability. Art postgraduates training units should be guided by "Xi Jinping Thought on Socialist Literature and Art with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era", based on the premise of changing concept, and by means of perfecting training programs, enhance the art postgraduates' research ability and cultivate high-level art talents.
In 2009, China began to train full-time Master of Engineering. After 10 years of development, the education quality for Master of Engineering in China has been continuously improved. By reviewing the research on the education quality of Engineering Master, a full-time Master of Engineering education quality index (MEEQI) with teaching training index, practice training index, achievement output index, engineering ability improvement index, employment quality index and satisfaction index as secondary indexes is constructed based on the process management theory and the survey data of 24 universities in China. The quality of training process, the quality of training results, the quality of value-added, and the degree of improvement of engineering ability are used to measure the overall development of Master of Engineering. The results show that the constructed index can better measure the differences in the quality of Inter-school Master of Engineering training.
With the continuous expansion of doctoral students enrollment, doctoral students have gradually become the main group scientific research activities in China. The research status of doctoral students is closely related to the training quality of doctoral students, the quality of higher education, and the academic level. Through in-depth interviews with 107 doctoral students in Beijing University of Aeronautics(BUAA), and based on three levels of coding, this research defined the five major influencing factors of research burnout for doctoral students, they are respectively, physiological pressure, psychological stress, individual ability pressure, scientific research situation factors, and social environmental factors. The five major influencing factors are further divided into internal pressure factors and mediating factors. Through further research, it is found that the internal stress factors are the root cause factors that affect the burnout of doctoral students. However, the internal stress factors can only lead to the occurrence of doctoral students' research burnout through the effect of intermediary pressure factors. Therefore, the birth of doctoral students' research burnout is not the result of a single factor, but a kind of negative emotion caused by the interaction of various internal stress factors.
It is imperative to improve the quality of graduates and cultivate talents in this time of China. The main factors influencing the level of cultivation include interaction, relationship and connection between tutors and graduates. Based on the status quo and problems of the relationship between tutors and graduates (RTG), this paper builds a RTG model and systematically analyzes the cognitive difference, location deviation, as well as self-cultivation of graduates. Suggestions involving construction of teaching mortality, shaping of RTG community, as well as building of the linkage mechanism are made.