2021, Vol. 34 No.1
Publication date: 25 January 2021
Given the special nature of China's national conditions, the Party must solve its number one innate problem: how to advance the great project of party building in a country with a relatively small number of workers to achieve the goal of building the party "in a nationwide and mass way". It was not until the Yan'an Period that the Party established the basic principle of ideological party building in practice, thus solving this problem fundamentally. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, the contents and forms of ideological party building were further enriched and perfected through the arduous explorations of successive Chinese Communists. To comprehensively advance the great new project of the Party building in the new era while adhering to the basic principle of building the Party ideologically, we must also take political construction as the orientation, organizational construction as the foundation, style construction as the starting point, system construction as the guarantee, and discipline construction as the criterion. This is an important inspiration from the construction practice of the Communist Party of China in the past hundred years.
This paper mainly adopts the method of literature research to study Mao Zedong's thought on political construction, and explore the logic and starting point of the thought on political construction of the Communist Party of China(CPC). Mao Zedong attached great importance to strengthening the Party's construction politically, and his thought was influenced by the Marxist thought that the party should have its own political stand and political attribute, and should form the core of leadership. The specific contents are as follows: attaching importance to "politicizing intraparty life", improving the level of intraparty politics, "the Party leads everything", maintaining the authority of the CPC Central Committee, maintaining the correct political direction, and attaching importance to the important role of the Party cadres.
The Rural Grass-roots Party Organization is the front-line force and important guarantee for the Rural Rejuvenation Strategy. Enhancing the organizational strength is the top priority of the construction of Rural Grass-Roots Party organization, and is also an important content of implementing the Rural Rejuvenation Strategy. The organizational strength of Rural Grass-Roots Party organization is the ability to continuously improve the organization coverage of Party, the masses appeal and the internal cohesion through internal and external dimensions. Under the background of the Rural Rejuvenation Strategy, there are some problems in the organizational strength of Rural Grass-Roots Party Organizations, such as unreasonable structure setting and shrinking organizational coverage, insufficient service ability and decline of the masses appeal, imperfect operation mechanism and weak internal cohesion. Therefore, it is necessary for Rural Rrass-Roots Party Organizations to optimize the structure and expand organizational coverage, highlight political functions and service awareness, and expand the masses appeal, standardize the organization and management, and enhance the internal cohesion, so as to comprehensively enhance their own organizational strength, and provide a solid guarantee for the full implementation of the Rural Rejuvenation strategy.
Luhmann's system theory of law is very instructive for the discussion of the transformation of Chinese law and society. Luhmann's theory is divided into two stages: the early stage and the late stage. On the early stage, impacted by Husserl's phenomenology and Parsons' structural functionalism, this theory concentrated on the problem of complexity and contingency of world, the fall drop of complexity between legal system and environment, and its effect on the evolution of legal system. On the late stage, Luhmann absorbs many theories such as autopoiesis theory in biology, form theory, and second order of observation. In this stage, he considers law as one of the functional sub-system of the whole society, focus on the inner dynamic structure of operation of legal system, especially the inner difference of programm and code. In the late stage of Luhmann's system theory, the legal system is a system of self-observation, and self-reflection, which is related to the inner-differentiation of legal doctrine and legal theory inside legal system. System theory of law observes legal system's self-observation and self-reflection on the second order, that is, observation of the legal system's observation.
From the perspective of Luhmann's social system theory, law is a normative expectation, adopting a counterfactual attitude of "not learning" so as to reversely achieve the function of time constraints on the whole society. In order to stabilize normative expectations, the functional differentiation of the legal system depends on an organized legal decision system. The decision system promotes the formal establishment of the legal/illegal binary code through the dual patterning of norms, making normative expectations in the legal system obtain a stable realization, thereby overcoming the shortcomings of normative expectations at the general social level. The legal system and the political system thus form a specific structural coupling. The function of law is not to promote social integration or social control, but to ensure that normative expectations are stable in time dimension. The functional model of law does not depend on the sovereign or society, but is given reflexively in the legal system. The law regulates itself at the level of "second-order observation" so as to realize the closure of its operation and the separation of the system.
The theory of evolution should answer the question of how to start and how to continue to progress. The evolution of the legal system is carried out in the process of the closed operation of the system and the maintenance of normative expectations. For this reason, the evolution of the legal system is disturbed but not determined by the environment. The evolution depends on the factual process of the system itself. Luhmann's system theory was inspired by Darwin's biological evolution theory by comparing the legal system to biological systems and emphasizing the dynamic nature of evolution itself. However, Luhmann weakened the importance of the environment in the process of natural selection and focused on the system in the evolution process. The mechanism of mutation, selection, and re-stabilization ultimately emphasizes the non-purpose, non-determinism, and non-necessity of evolution. Specifically, the theory of legal evolution includes the three main issues as why the evolution is possible, how to unfold the progress, and the path to move toward the future.
The considerable number of floating population exceeds the administrative regions corresponding to the pooling level of old-age insurance fund due to migration while the local management of old-age insurance system is ineffective in dealing with this problem, which results in the damage of old-age insurance rights of some floating population. The concrete manifestation of the loss of old-age insurance rights of part of floating population is low participation rate, difficult transfer and connection, and low benefit for old-age insurance. The coalition-proof equilibrium formed by the game among the central government, local government and employer provides an explanatory perspective for the incomplete old-age insurance rights of floating population. This paper develops and solves a mixed strategy game among central government, local government and employer, the results show that the central government should actively implement the reform of decentralization, regulation and service, appropriately reduce the old-age insurance expense paid by the employer, and improve the effectiveness of regulation, which is conducive to break the coalition-proof equilibrium in the protection of the old-age insurance rights of the floating population to enhance the governance modernization for old-age insurance of floating population.
The increasing aging of the population has put forward higher requirements for the pension security. Active aging, as a theoretical perspective and policy goal to deal with population aging, has strong theoretical explanatory power and prospect planning power in the construction of the pension security. The analysis of the characteristics of family pension shows that it fits the pursuit of health, participation and security of active aging. Meanwhile, it is an ideal choice for the elderly to be cared for, happy and productive. To strengthen the function of family endowment and promote the realization of active aging, it is necessary to build a comprehensive and systematic family endowment policy support system from the aspects of law, economy, culture, public service, social security and so on.
In the new period, the Chinese health security system has entered a stage of high-quality development. The benefits adjustment and payment of medical security not only have the foundation of universal participation and the opportunity of deepening reform, but also face the pressure of rigid growth and complex social challenges. However, the rigid growth pressure of welfare and rapid social changes pose challenges, which requires not only the dynamic adjustment of health insurance benefits and the compound reform of the payment system, but also the coordination of these two elements. Therefore, it's necessary to regard the reconstruction of equilibrium as an important task in deepening the health insurance reform. Additionally, the systems face such status and problems as gradual increasing but unequal benefits, large balances but unbalanced structure fund, advancing but improper linkage payment reform. Due to this, the deepening development of the health secarity system need the integration of institution, management, operation, resource, and governance.
The "Refueling Mulan"—Focusing on Poor Women's Security Project, takes the "public welfare + poverty alleviation + Internet insurance" model to give free education and health insurance to women who have registered in poverty-stricken counties in China to alleviate their poverty due to schooling and illness. The project integrates the advantages of public welfare organizations, enterprises, governments, and the public, comprehensive use of insurance leverage, blockchain technology, Internet technology, etc. to maximize the use of public welfare resources, realize the dynamic tracking of capital flow, and simplifying the operation of insurance and claim settlement. The project, to a certain extent alleviated the poverty situation of the insured objects, helped the local government to fight against poverty, and fulfilled the "six accuracies" requirements of the Party Central Committee for poverty alleviation.
Under the background of the deepening of interest rate market reform in China, the development and stability of the spot and futures market of government bonds and interest rate swap market are very important to deepen the reform of interest rate marketization and maintain the stability of interest rate market, but who is the "anchor" of price stability in China's interest rate market? Based on the theory of information overflow, this paper determines the influence of the government bonds spots, government bonds futures and interest rate swap market in China's interest rate market from the perspective of fluctuation overflow. The study found that: first, the total risk spillovers among the three markets is strong, China's interest rate derivatives market has a certain influence on the spot market of government bonds; second, China's 10-year government bonds spot and futures market has been the net spillover of volatility information, but also China's interest rate market stability "anchor"; third, there are significant differences in the long-term and short-term volatility spillover effect among the spot and futures market of China's government bonds and the interest rate swap market, and the long-term volatility spillover effect dominates. According to this proposal, we should continue to improve the existing interest rate derivatives market and focus on the development of the bond futures market, open up the market segmentation of treasury bond futures and interest rate swaps, and reasonably guide the long-term expectations of market participants, so as to prevent the interest rate market from over-connectedness.
Based on the panel data of China's 30 provinces (cities, districts) from 2002 to 2016, this paper uses spatial econometric model and panel threshold regression model to analyze the influence of agricultural production efficiency on agricultural carbon emissions. The results show that: first, agricultural production efficiency has a significant negative impact on agricultural carbon emissions; second based on adjacent matrix, distance matrix and economic matrix, agricultural carbon emissions have significant negative spatial spillover effects on neighboring provinces; third, with adjacent matrix and economic matrix, agricultural production efficiency has a significant positive spatial spillover effect on neighboring provinces. With the increase of agricultural output value in different provinces, the impact of agricultural production on agricultural carbon emissions shows an inverted U-shaped characteristic that first rises and then falls. With the improvement of agricultural production efficiency in different provinces, agricultural production efficiency has a significant negative impact on agricultural carbon emissions, and its impact degree is declining. Therefore, improving agricultural production efficiency can effectively reduce carbon emissions, which is of great significance for achieving high-quality agricultural development.
The study on the legal issues of civil aviation passengers blacklist used to focused on the necessity and rationality. In recent years, according to the establishment of the blacklist system, the discussion about necessity and rationality almost came to an end. The legal issues of civil aviation passengers blacklist range from the legal resource of making such blacklist, to who has the power to make the blacklist, who may be put into the blacklist, and what remedies the passengers can get. In different blacklists the passengers may use different proceedings such as civil lawsuit and administrative proceedings.
The grounding of civil aircraft mainly attributes to aviation product defects. The categories of grounding can be divided into three major forms based on the following reasons: government's safety supervision, choices made by airlines considering industry self-regulation, and the prohibition of countries concerned for airlines' unconformity of their mandatory standards. Different types of grounding are subject to different subjects and bases of liability. The grounding of civil aircraft would definitely have significant influence on China's emergency response mechanism and the improvement of the aviation legal system. Therefore, China should strengthen airworthiness management, strictly standardize airworthiness standards and the procedures of airworthiness certification, initiate and establish the system of aviation safety supervision, enhance the risk handling capacities both at national, corporate and all other levels, formulate risk prevention and control plans, improve the airworthiness regulation system and the grounding liability insurance.
UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) imply many risks while promoting social development. Managing them in the product design, production and sales stages is one of the effective ways to control risks. When implementing management of a drone product, UAVs can be first defined as an aircraft, and subdivided on this basis. In the construction of the specific supervision system, the tasks of the product management stage should be reasonably set within the framework of the drone supervision, focusing on the parts quality, flight performance, safety assurance technology, etc. of the drone, product designer, production manufacturers, inspectors, and the responsibility of sellers for the compliance content of different parts of the product. When applicable to different types of drones, specific compliance content can be adjusted based on security. In addition, product subject qualification, product modification, product tracking and recall, product liability and insurance should also be addressed in the supervision of drones.
The "Belt and Road" Initiative shows China's determination and capacity in the globalization process. The Initiative provides opportunities for further internationalization of Chinese higher education. In the past 40 years of Open Door Policy, Chinese universities are used to sending students and scholars to learn from the western countries for advanced knowledge, but for the "Belt and Road" Initiative, Chinese universities are obliged to tell successful stories and experiences to the world and establish educational community relations with countries along the road maps. This paper discusses the importance of cultural diversity education, languages education and Chinese language worldwide promotion, and also discusses the development of sino-foreign cooperation in running schools and the changes.
Britain officially "Brexit" in 2020. This may lead to a decline in the British's international scientific research funding, the level of international cooperation, the proportion of non-British faculty and staff, and the scale and quality of international students. It may also cause the implementation of the Erasmus project in Britain to be blocked. Coupled with the impact of the new crown pneumonia epidemic, the international development of British higher education may face downward pressure. After Brexit, the important direction for the internationalization of higher education in Britain is to establish close ties with China. Both China and Britain have a strong willingness to cooperate and better complementary capabilities in the field of higher education internationalization. China should quickly adjust its strategy for the internationalization of higher education in Britain and even the European Union. Meanwhile, China should also actively seek in-depth cooperation with Britain in such areas as enrollment of foreign students, training and use of high-level talents, and make full use of the "Belt and Road" Initiative to deepen China-Britain practical cooperation in the field of higher education internationalization.
Economic globalization has made the trend of internationalization of higher education more and more obvious. Located in Beijing, the center for national culture and of international exchanges, Beijing municipal universities should vigorously promote the internationalization of higher education based on a correct assessment of situation. With the development of the times, the connotative elements of higher education are constantly changing. The internationalization of higher education is discussed under the framework of the glonacal agency heuristic. The elements of internationalization are analyzed from the global, national, local and school levels, which can provide feasible approaches to the internationalization of Beijing municipal universities. The universities should be positioned accurately, adapt to local conditions, and actively promote the internationalization process of Beijing municipal universities in terms of manpower and cultural elements.
Sino-foreign cooperative in running school is an important form of opening up higher education in China. This paper makes a sample survey of the students of four universities in Beijing who are in the process of Sino-foreign cooperative education, and makes an evaluation and analysis of the students' satisfaction with the teaching quality of Chinese and foreign teachers. The results show that the students' satisfaction with Chinese and foreign teachers' teaching quality is close to the basic satisfaction, but there is still a certain gap from the students' expectations; students believed that the foreign and Chinese teachers have their own advantages in the teaching of language and professional courses; they also believed that teachers pay less attention to the "evaluation and feedback" and "individual development" of students. Therefore, it is suggested that Chinese and foreign teachers should give full play to their advantages and cooperate closely in teaching, strengthen the evaluation and feedback of students' learning achievements, pay attention to students' development and give them more learning support, and constantly improve the teaching quality of cooperative education.