The degree of population aging is deepening, and the pressure on the income and expenditure of basic pension insurance funds for urban workers is increasingly prominent at present. From the establishment of the basic endowment insurance system for urban employees, the central and local governments have been responsible for subsidies, and the scale of subsidies has been continuously expanded. Although the corresponding financial subsidies are constantly strengthening, there are still some problems. Based on the analysis of the current financial responsibility of pension insurance, this paper analyzes the problems of financial responsibility of China's pension insurance in combination with the experience of government financial responsibility of OECD countries, and provides corresponding policy recommendations for the financial responsibility of China's next pension insurance. We will improve and fully utilize the two central and local institutional mechanisms to establish a fair and sustainable social security system, promote equalization of basic public services, and better respond to the challenges posed by an aging society.