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倾转旋翼机巡航状态旋翼滑流影响

马铁林 张子伦 刘振臣 王祥胜 郝帅

马铁林, 张子伦, 刘振臣, 等 . 倾转旋翼机巡航状态旋翼滑流影响[J]. 北京航空航天大学学报, 2021, 47(6): 1124-1137. doi: 10.13700/j.bh.1001-5965.2020.0177
引用本文: 马铁林, 张子伦, 刘振臣, 等 . 倾转旋翼机巡航状态旋翼滑流影响[J]. 北京航空航天大学学报, 2021, 47(6): 1124-1137. doi: 10.13700/j.bh.1001-5965.2020.0177
MA Tielin, ZHANG Zilun, LIU Zhenchen, et al. Effect of rotor slipstream of tiltrotor aircraft in cruise mode[J]. Journal of Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2021, 47(6): 1124-1137. doi: 10.13700/j.bh.1001-5965.2020.0177(in Chinese)
Citation: MA Tielin, ZHANG Zilun, LIU Zhenchen, et al. Effect of rotor slipstream of tiltrotor aircraft in cruise mode[J]. Journal of Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2021, 47(6): 1124-1137. doi: 10.13700/j.bh.1001-5965.2020.0177(in Chinese)

倾转旋翼机巡航状态旋翼滑流影响

doi: 10.13700/j.bh.1001-5965.2020.0177
基金项目: 

北京市科技计划项目 Z181100003218015

详细信息
    通讯作者:

    刘振臣. E-mail: liuzhenchen@buaa.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: V221+.3

Effect of rotor slipstream of tiltrotor aircraft in cruise mode

Funds: 

Beijing Municipal Sci-Tech Program Z181100003218015

More Information
  • 摘要:

    倾转旋翼机由于需要兼顾垂直起降和高速平飞2种典型工况下的动力需求,采用大直径旋翼作为推进装置会使机翼大部分处于旋翼滑流区内,这与常规螺旋桨飞机存在较大差异。为评估不同数值计算方法并研究旋翼滑流对倾转旋翼机气动特性的影响,针对选取两叶旋翼的某倾转旋翼机方案,利用激励盘模型、多参考系(MRF)模型、滑移网格模型分别进行了巡航状态下旋翼滑流对全机气动特性影响的数值模拟研究。结果表明:相对于无滑流状态,滑流定常影响使全机阻力增大,最大升阻比降低了7.5%,尾翼产生的升力增大,纵向静稳定度增加了17.1%,全机低头力矩增大;当迎角较小时,滑流虽然改变了机翼表面的升力分布,但是全机升力变化不大;滑流非定常影响会使全机气动特性产生周期性波动,升力系数波动幅度为9.0%,阻力系数波动幅度为10.8%,并且随着迎角的增大,波动幅度也越大。

     

  • 图 1  旋转坐标系与惯性坐标系

    Figure 1.  Rotating and inertial coordinate systems

    图 2  二维搭接面

    Figure 2.  Two-dimensional patched interface

    图 3  激励盘模型动压计算值与试验值对比

    Figure 3.  Comparison of dynamic pressure between calculation values and test values of actuator disk model

    图 4  试验台架

    Figure 4.  Test bench

    图 5  旋翼表面网格

    Figure 5.  Surface grid of rotor

    图 6  MRF模型计算值与试验值对比

    Figure 6.  Comparison between calculation values and test values of MRF model

    图 7  倾转旋翼机布局

    Figure 7.  Configuration of tiltrotor aircraft

    图 8  激励盘模型计算网格

    Figure 8.  Computational grids of actuator disk model

    图 9  搭接面网格切面示意图

    Figure 9.  Schematic of slice of patched interface grids

    图 10  有/无滑流全机气动特性对比

    Figure 10.  Comparison of aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft with and without slipstream

    图 11  有/无滑流各部件气动特性对比

    Figure 11.  Comparison of aerodynamic characteristics of components with and without slipstream

    图 12  有/无滑流压力系数云图对比

    Figure 12.  Comparison of pressure coefficient contour with and without slipstream

    图 13  有/无滑流机翼截面压力系数分布对比

    Figure 13.  Comparison of pressure coefficient distribution of wing section with and without slipstream

    图 14  有/无滑流速度云图对比

    Figure 14.  Comparison of velocity contour with and without slipstream

    图 15  X=1 m截面当地迎角增量变化

    Figure 15.  Increment of local angle of attack of X=1 m section

    图 16  V尾动压监测点布置

    Figure 16.  Distribution of dynamic pressure monitoring point of V-tail

    图 17  有/无滑流速度云图与流线对比(α=6°, Y=0.48 m)

    Figure 17.  Comparison of velocity contour and streamline with and without slipstream (α=6°, Y=0.48 m)

    图 18  有/无滑流V尾截面压力系数分布对比(α=6°, Y=0.48 m)

    Figure 18.  Comparison of pressure coefficient distribution of V-tail section with and without slipstream (α=6°, Y=0.48 m)

    图 19  全机气动特性随时间变化情况(α=0°)

    Figure 19.  Variation of aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft with time (α=0°)

    图 20  激励盘与MRF模型计算的压力系数云图对比(α=0°)

    Figure 20.  Comparison of pressure coefficient contour calculated by actuator disk and MRF models (α=0°)

    图 21  激励盘与MRF模型压力系数云图及流线对比(α=6°, Z=0.16 m)

    Figure 21.  Comparison of pressure coefficient contour and streamline between actuator disk and MRF models (α=6°, Z=0.16 m)

    图 22  激励盘模型X=1 m截面当地迎角增量变化

    Figure 22.  Increment of local angle of attack of X=1 m section of actuator disk model

    图 23  MRF模型4种旋翼相位角示意

    Figure 23.  Schematic of four rotor phase angles of MRF model

    图 24  MRF模型4种旋翼相位角气动特性曲线

    Figure 24.  Aerodynamic characteristic curves of four rotor phase angles of MRF model

    图 25  MRF模型与滑移网格模型计算结果对比(α=0°)

    Figure 25.  Comparison of results calculated by MRF and sliding mesh models (α=0°)

    图 26  MRF模型与滑移网格计算的压力系数云图对比(α=0°)

    Figure 26.  Comparison of pressure coefficient contour calculated by MRF and sliding mesh models (α=0°)

    表  1  验证算例旋翼参数[22]

    Table  1.   Rotor parameters of verification example[22]

    参数 数值或翼型
    旋翼半径/m 0.914
    桨毂半径/m 0.229
    旋翼翼型 NACA0012
    旋翼弦长/m 0.1
    旋翼桨距/(°) 11
    旋翼片数 2
    转速n/(r·min-1) 1 167
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  倾转旋翼机参数

    Table  2.   Parameters of tiltrotor aircraft

    参数 数值
    机翼翼展/m 3.5
    机翼面积/m2 1.18
    机翼安装角/(°) 3
    巡航高度/km 4
    平均气动弦长/m 0.33
    飞行速度/(km·h-1) 150
    旋翼转速n/(r·min-1) 1 500
    旋翼直径/m 1.5
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同迎角下Point 1与Point 2的动压监测值

    Table  3.   Dynamic pressure of Point 1 and Point 2 at different angles of attack

    α/(°) qU1/Pa qP1/Pa Δ1/% qU2/Pa qP2/Pa Δ2/%
    0 674.6 689.6 2.22 699.8 739.5 5.67
    3 620.4 650.6 4.87 700.9 762.4 8.77
    6 562.8 600.9 6.77 702.8 789.8 12.38
    9 580.6 630.6 8.61 705.4 817 15.82
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  三种数值方法评估

    Table  4.   Evaluation of three numerical methods

    方法 旋翼模型 网格量 计算时间 精度 适用范围
    激励盘 虚拟 定常
    MRF 真实 定常
    滑移网格 真实 非定常
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-05-08
  • 录用日期:  2020-07-11
  • 刊出日期:  2021-06-20

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