北京航空航天大学学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (6): 1232-1239.doi: 10.13700/j.bh.1001-5965.2018.0593

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于多传感器测量的航天器舱段自动对接位姿调整方法

陈冠宇1, 成群林1, 张解语2, 洪海波1, 何军1   

  1. 1. 上海航天精密机械研究所, 上海 201600;
    2. 西安电子科技大学 机电工程学院, 西安 710071
  • 收稿日期:2018-10-17 出版日期:2019-06-20 发布日期:2019-06-18
  • 通讯作者: 成群林 E-mail:18706730639@163.com
  • 作者简介:陈冠宇 男,硕士研究生。主要研究方向:航空宇航科学与技术(电气控制);成群林 男,博士,研究员。主要研究方向:机械工程。
  • 基金资助:
    装备预研共用技术项目(41423010401)

Multi-sensor measurement based position and pose adjustment method for automatic docking of spacecraft cabins

CHEN Guanyu1, CHENG Qunlin1, ZHANG Jieyu2, HONG Haibo1, HE Jun1   

  1. 1. Shanghai Spaceflight Precision Machinery Institute, Shanghai 201600, China;
    2. School of Mechano-Electronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi'an 710071, China
  • Received:2018-10-17 Online:2019-06-20 Published:2019-06-18

摘要: 针对航天器舱段对接通常采用的手工操作方式效率低、精度差和可靠性难以保证的问题,研发了一种基于多传感器测量的舱段自动对接装置,其中舱体位姿的测量和调整是保证对接质量和效率的关键因素。提出了一种基于激光轮廓传感器和CCD图像传感器等多传感器协同测量的舱段六自由度位姿估计和调整方法。首先,采用激光轮廓传感器对舱体进行扫描,获取位姿三维点云信息,并采用改进的最小二乘法对被测舱段位姿进行求解;然后,通过CCD图像传感器获取舱段对接孔位置,通过圆拟合计算角度偏差,求解和拟合的结果将反馈至控制系统进行调姿和对接。采用Gocator 2350激光轮廓传感器及大恒MER-1810-21U3C工业相机进行舱体测量和对接实验,结果表明,舱体位姿调整精度和效率均达到对接要求。该方法结合了激光轮廓传感器的可靠性和机器视觉的灵活性,有效提高了自动对接系统的效率、稳定性和一致性,足以满足未来军用以及民用的需求。

关键词: 舱段自动对接, 位姿调整, 多传感器测量, 位姿计算, 数据处理

Abstract: In view of the shortcomings of the manual operation methods commonly used in the docking of spacecraft cabins, such as low efficiency, poor precision, and difficulty in ensuring reliability, an automatic docking device for cabins based on multi-sensor measurement has been developed. The measurement and adjustment of the cabin position and pose is the key factor to ensure the quality and efficiency of the docking. Therefore, this paper proposes a six-degree-of-freedom position and pose estimation and adjustment method based on multi-sensor collaborative measurement of laser contour sensor and CCD image sensor. The specific method is as follows:the laser contour sensor is used to scan the cabin, the three-dimensional point cloud information of the position and pose is obtained, and the posture of the measured cabin is solved by the improved least squares method. On this basis, the position of the docking hole of the cabin is obtained by the image sensor, and the angular deviation is calculated by the circle fitting. The result of the solution and fitting will be fed back to the control system for posture adjustment and docking. The project uses the Gocator 2350 laser profile sensor and the Daheng MER-1810-21U3C industrial camera for cabin measurement and docking experiments. The experimental results show that the accuracy and efficiency of the cabin position adjustment meet the docking requirements. This method combines the reliability of the laser profile sensor with the flexibility of machine vision to effectively improve the efficiency, stability and consistency of the automatic docking system, which is sufficient for future military and civilian needs.

Key words: automatic docking of cabins, position and pose adjustment, multi-sensor measurement, position and pose calculation, data processing

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