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车用复合材料螺旋弹簧的设计与优化

詹博文 孙凌玉 黄彬城 赵冠博 王倩

詹博文, 孙凌玉, 黄彬城, 等 . 车用复合材料螺旋弹簧的设计与优化[J]. 北京航空航天大学学报, 2018, 44(7): 1520-1527. doi: 10.13700/j.bh.1001-5965.2017.0548
引用本文: 詹博文, 孙凌玉, 黄彬城, 等 . 车用复合材料螺旋弹簧的设计与优化[J]. 北京航空航天大学学报, 2018, 44(7): 1520-1527. doi: 10.13700/j.bh.1001-5965.2017.0548
ZHAN Bowen, SUN Lingyu, HUANG Bincheng, et al. Design and optimization of automotive composite helical spring[J]. Journal of Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2018, 44(7): 1520-1527. doi: 10.13700/j.bh.1001-5965.2017.0548(in Chinese)
Citation: ZHAN Bowen, SUN Lingyu, HUANG Bincheng, et al. Design and optimization of automotive composite helical spring[J]. Journal of Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2018, 44(7): 1520-1527. doi: 10.13700/j.bh.1001-5965.2017.0548(in Chinese)

车用复合材料螺旋弹簧的设计与优化

doi: 10.13700/j.bh.1001-5965.2017.0548
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金 U1664250

国家自然科学基金 51575023

国家重点研发计划 2016YFB0101606

详细信息
    作者简介:

    詹博文  男, 硕士研究生。主要研究方向:结构优化和智能材料开发等

    孙凌玉  女, 博士, 教授, 博士生导师。主要研究方向:汽车轻量化和智能材料开发等

    通讯作者:

    孙凌玉.E-mail:lysun@buaa.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: U465.6

Design and optimization of automotive composite helical spring

Funds: 

National Natural Science Foundation of China U1664250

National Natural Science Foundation of China 51575023

National Key R & D Program of China 2016YFB0101606

More Information
  • 摘要:

    利用复合材料可设计性强和树脂基体轻量化的特点,并解耦“材料-结构-性能”之间的相互关联,是汽车复合材料结构件设计的难点。螺旋弹簧是汽车悬架系统的主要承载部件,工况复杂,一般采用性能极佳的弹簧钢;若用轻质复合材料替代,必须兼顾安全性与轻量化,设计难度很大。针对上述问题,提出了一种复合材料螺旋弹簧“材料-结构-性能”集成设计方法。依据弹簧受压缩载荷时,簧丝截面应力分布,确定选择±45°铺层的碳纤维复合材料(CFRP);在满足刚度、强度和安装空间约束条件下,根据复合材料力学和弹簧刚度、强度理论模型,确定初始弹簧几何参数;再进一步利用有限元数值仿真进行校验;将正交实验设计法和有限元数值模拟结合,建立轴向压缩刚度和强度随几何参数变化的响应面模型;采用遗传算法获得满足弹簧性能要求下轻量化效果最佳的设计结果。优化后的复合材料弹簧方案比金属弹簧质量减轻34.4%,为复合材料汽车结构件设计提供了可行的整体解决方案和产品开发实例。

     

  • 图 1  弹簧及簧丝截面受力情况

    Figure 1.  Force analysis of spring and cross section of wire

    图 2  RVE的铺层结构示意图

    Figure 2.  Schematic of layer structure of RVE

    图 3  初始参数理论设计流程

    Figure 3.  Theoretical design process of inital parameters

    图 4  仿真模型中的载荷与边界条件

    Figure 4.  Loads and boundary condition in simulation model

    图 5  压缩量最大时弹簧整体及截面的剪切应力分布

    Figure 5.  Shear stress distribution of whole spring and cross section at ultimate compression

    图 6  κdDn的响应面

    Figure 6.  Response surface of κ with geometric parameters d, D and n

    图 7  τsmax与dDn的响应面

    Figure 7.  Response surface of τsmax with geometric parameters d, D and n

    表  1  CFRP的材料参数[12]

    Table  1.   Material parameters of CFRP[12]

    参 数 E1/GPa E2/GPa G12/GPa ν12 XT/MPa XC/MPa YT/MPa YC/MPa S12/MPa
    数 值 115.142 6.894 12.41 0.332 1 447 1 172 6.89 262 279
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  弹簧几何参数的理论设计初值

    Table  2.   Theoretically designed initial value of spring geometric parameters

    参 数 簧丝直径/mm 弹簧中径/mm 弹簧有效圈数
    数 值 21.2 123.5 5.4
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  Hashin失效准则[15]

    Table  3.   Hashin failure criterion[15]

    失效模式 失效准则
    纤维拉伸断裂(σ11≥0)
    纤维压缩断裂(σ11 < 0)
    基体拉伸断裂(σ22≥0)
    基体压缩断裂(σ22 < 0)
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  弹簧几何结构正交实验样本及仿真结果

    Table  4.   Orthogonal experimental samples and their simulation results of spring geometric structure

    d/mm D/mm n κ S
    19.27 120 5.2 64.94 1.18
    20.83 121.06 6 84.29 1.33
    19.66 122.11 4.93 66.37 1.22
    20.05 123.17 5.87 71.53 1.26
    20.44 124.23 4.13 68.57 1.27
    20.25 125.28 4.53 72.13 1.29
    19.08 126.34 5.47 61.8 1.31
    19.86 127.4 4.8 55.5 1.14
    21.03 128.45 4.67 74.13 1.38
    21.22 129.51 5.33 75.59 1.39
    20.64 130.57 5.07 80.87 1.38
    21.81 131.62 5.73 66.42 1.29
    22 132.68 5.6 81.3 1.40
    21.42 133.74 4.27 70.64 1.35
    19.47 134.79 4.4 48 1.29
    21.61 135.85 4 69.81 1.41
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  金属弹簧及优化前后复合材料弹簧性能比较

    Table  5.   Performance comparison of metal spring and composite spring before and after optimization

    弹簧 W/kg κ/(N·mm-1) S d/mm D/mm n
    金属弹簧 5.23 75 2.74 16.4 142.1 7.3
    初始理论设计复合材料弹簧 3.74 73.2 1.38 21.2 123.5 5.4
    有限元优化后的复合材料弹簧 3.43 75 1.33 19.1 121.4 5.0
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  优化结果误差分析

    Table  6.   Error analysis of optimized results

    约束参数 优化结果 优化结构的数值仿真 误差/%
    κ 75 72.7 3.1
    τsmax 270.3 276.4 2.2
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2017-08-31
  • 录用日期:  2017-11-23
  • 刊出日期:  2018-07-20

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