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考虑多巡航工况的大型飞机气动弹性优化

李旭阳 万志强 王晓喆 杨璐嘉 杨超

李旭阳, 万志强, 王晓喆, 等 . 考虑多巡航工况的大型飞机气动弹性优化[J]. 北京航空航天大学学报, 2021, 47(8): 1628-1637. doi: 10.13700/j.bh.1001-5965.2020.0287
引用本文: 李旭阳, 万志强, 王晓喆, 等 . 考虑多巡航工况的大型飞机气动弹性优化[J]. 北京航空航天大学学报, 2021, 47(8): 1628-1637. doi: 10.13700/j.bh.1001-5965.2020.0287
LI Xuyang, WAN Zhiqiang, WANG Xiaozhe, et al. Aeroelastic optimization of large aircraft considering multiple cruise conditions[J]. Journal of Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2021, 47(8): 1628-1637. doi: 10.13700/j.bh.1001-5965.2020.0287(in Chinese)
Citation: LI Xuyang, WAN Zhiqiang, WANG Xiaozhe, et al. Aeroelastic optimization of large aircraft considering multiple cruise conditions[J]. Journal of Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2021, 47(8): 1628-1637. doi: 10.13700/j.bh.1001-5965.2020.0287(in Chinese)

考虑多巡航工况的大型飞机气动弹性优化

doi: 10.13700/j.bh.1001-5965.2020.0287
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划 2017YFB0503002

国家重点研发计划 2016YFB0200703

民航通用航空运行重点实验室(中国民航管理干部学院)开放基金 CAMICKFJJ-2019-02

详细信息
    通讯作者:

    王晓喆. E-mail: wangxiaozhemvp@buaa.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: V214.19

Aeroelastic optimization of large aircraft considering multiple cruise conditions

Funds: 

National Key R & D Program of China 2017YFB0503002

National Key R & D Program of China 2016YFB0200703

CAAC Key Laboratory of General Aviation Operation (Civil Aviation Management Institute of China) CAMICKFJJ-2019-02

More Information
  • 摘要:

    针对目前大型飞机机翼常见的单点优化设计方法在考虑多巡航工况情况下非设计点性能较差的问题,提出了一种多工况气动弹性综合优化框架,考虑了不同的巡航工况,对大型飞机复合材料机翼开展气动弹性优化的研究。以最小机翼结构质量为目标,在气动弹性、应力/应变、强度等条件的约束下,通过遗传算法对机翼型架外形的蒙皮、腹板、凸缘等复合材料部件的铺层厚度展开设计,并根据优化结果进行了型架外形设计,采用高精度CFD/CSD耦合方法分析和校验了优化结果的升阻特性。研究表明:在不低于设计巡航外形气动性能的条件下,综合多巡航工况的气动弹性优化能有效减轻结构质量,从而减少整体燃油消耗。进一步对比分析了多巡航工况优化与单巡航工况优化,研究了巡航工况数目与优化结果之间的关系,结果表明:综合考虑多巡航工况的优化结果性能更好,且优化结果的整体性能随着优化巡航工况数目的增加而提升。

     

  • 图 1  多工况气动弹性综合优化框架

    Figure 1.  Synthetical multi-point aeroelastic optimization framework

    图 2  大型飞机后掠机翼结构有限元模型

    Figure 2.  Swept wing structural finite element method model of large aircraft

    图 3  机翼偶极子格网法及CFD方法气动外形

    Figure 3.  Aerodynamic shape of wing by doublet lattice method and CFD method

    图 4  机翼设计变量示意图

    Figure 4.  Sketch map of wing design variables

    图 5  不同优化条件下各巡航工况适应度

    Figure 5.  Fitness of each cruise condition under different optimization conditions

    图 6  不同优化条件下所有巡航工况平均适应度

    Figure 6.  Average fitness of all cruise conditions under different optimization conditions

    图 7  不同优化条件下各巡航工况翼尖位移

    Figure 7.  Wing tip displacement of each cruise condition under different optimization conditions

    图 8  优化后结构质量

    Figure 8.  Structure mass after optimization

    图 9  不同优化条件下各巡航工况升阻比

    Figure 9.  Lift-to-drag ratio of each cruise condition under different optimization conditions

    图 10  不同优化条件下平均升阻比

    Figure 10.  Average lift-to-drag ratio under different optimization conditions

    表  1  复合材料单向层压板主要性能参数

    Table  1.   Main performance parameters of composite unidirectional laminate

    材料性能 具体参数 典型值 B基值
    拉伸强度/MPa 纵向Xt 1 747 1 342
    横向Yt 67 56
    压缩强度/MPa 纵向Xc 1 357 1 069
    横向Yc 170 147
    纵横剪切强度/MPa Ys 124 117
    层间剪切强度/MPa τb 93 85
    泊松比 γ12 0.312 0.312
    拉伸弹性模量/GPa 纵向E1t 137 127
    横向E2t 9.3 8.5
    压缩弹性模量/GPa 纵向E1c 136 127
    横向E2c 9.4 8.5
    纵剪切弹性模量/GPa G12 5.3 4.5
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  优化中的强度/应变约束条件

    Table  2.   Strength/strain constraint conditions in optimization

    约束指标 约束范围
    长桁应力约束/MPa [-324, 446]
    梁突缘应力约束/MPa [-324, 446]
    纵向拉压许用应变约束/με [-4 000, 5 500]
    纵横向剪切许用应变约束/με [-7 600, 7 600]
    失效约束(Tsai-Wu失效准则) [-1, 1]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  各巡航工况半模质量分布

    Table  3.   Half model mass distribution of each cruise condition

    巡航工况编号 半模质量/kg
    1 42 258
    2 41 258
    3 40 258
    4 39 258
    5 36 258
    6 33 258
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  各优化条件所考虑巡航工况

    Table  4.   Cruise conditions considered in each optimization condition

    单巡航工况
    优化条件编号
    单1 单2 单3 单4 单5 单6
    所考虑巡航
    工况编号
    1 2 3 4 5 6
    多巡航工况
    优化条件编号
    多1 多2 多3
    所考虑巡航
    工况编号
    1, 4 1, 2, 3, 4 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  优化后油耗变化

    Table  5.   Fuel consumption change after optimization

    优化条件 工况数目 升阻比变化对油耗影响 结构质量变化对油耗影响 总油耗变化/%
    平均升阻比 升阻比变化/% 油耗变化/% 结构质量/kg 结构质量变化/% 油耗变化/%
    初始 0 20.003 0 0 1 076.2 0 0 0
    单1 1 19.872 -0.65 0.65 1 018.6 -5.35 -3.88 -3.23
    多1 2 19.840 -0.82 0.82 1 015.1 -5.68 -4.12 -3.30
    多2 4 19.825 -0.89 0.89 1 013.4 -5.84 -4.23 -3.34
    多3 6 19.789 -1.07 1.07 991.4 -7.88 -5.71 -4.64
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-06-20
  • 录用日期:  2020-09-30
  • 刊出日期:  2021-08-20

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